The Birth-Mark

References

  1. ^ Wineapple, Brenda. "Nathaniel Hawthorne 1804-1864: A Brief Biography", A Historical Guide to Nathaniel Hawthorne, Larry J. Reynolds, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. p. 26. ISBN 0-19-512414-6
  2. ^ Miller, Edwin Haviland. Salem Is My Dwelling Place: A Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991: 250. ISBN 0-87745-332-2
  3. ^ Wineapple, Brenda. "Nathaniel Hawthorne 1804-1864: A Brief Biography", A Historical Guide to Nathaniel Hawthorne, Larry J. Reynolds, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. p. 24. ISBN 0-19-512414-6
  4. ^ Youra, Steven. "'The Fatal Hand': A Sign of Confusion in Hawthorne's 'The Birth-Mark.'." American Transcendental Quarterly 60 (June 1986): 43-51. Rpt. in Short Story Criticism. Ed. Rachelle Mucha and Thomas J. Schoenberg. Vol. 89. Detroit: Gale, 2006
  5. ^ Fetterley,Judith. "Women Beware Science: "The Birthmark"." Frank, Ed. Albert J. von. Critical Essays on Hawthorne's Short Stories. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1991. 164-173.
  6. ^ Yellin, Jean Fagan. "Hawthorne and the Slavery Question", A Historical Guide to Nathaniel Hawthorne, Larry J. Reynolds, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. p. 148. ISBN 0-19-512414-6
  7. ^ Quinn, Arthur Hobson. Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8018-5730-9. p. 331.
  8. ^ Heilman, Robert B. "Hawthorne's "The Birthmark": Science as Religion." McIntosh, Ed. James. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tales. New York: Norton & Company, 1987. 421-427.
  9. ^ Heilman, Robert B. "Hawthorne's "The Birthmark": Science as Religion." McIntosh, Ed. James. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tales. New York: Norton & Company, 1987. 421-427.
  10. ^ Wright, Sarah Bird. Critical Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York: Facts on File Inc., 2007.
  11. ^ Wright, Sarah Bird. Critical Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York: Facts on File Inc., 2007.
  12. ^ Wright, Sarah Bird. Critical Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York: Facts on File Inc., 2007.
  13. ^ Fetterley, Judith. Women Beware Science: "The Birthmark". Frank, Ed. Albert J. von. Critical Essays on Hawthorne's Short Stories. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1991. 164-173.
  14. ^ Campbell, Donna. "Literary Movements". Puritanism in New England. Ohio University Press. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 

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