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Vincent Anton Freeman
Vincent Anton Freeman is the protagonist of Gattaca. He, unlike most of his generation, was conceived without genetic selection, and is therefore at risk for many disorders and has a shortened life expectancy. Vincent dreams of becoming an astronaut but knows his genetic inferiority makes this dream almost unattainable. He therefore does the only thing he can think of that will help him attain this dream: posing as a different individual with a better genotype.
Irene Cassini is a worker at Gattaca and Vincent’s love interest. She is technically not genetically “invalid”; however, she has an increased risk of heart failure which lessens her chances of participating in a mission. Irene is initially unaware that Vincent is posing as someone else, but he later shares this information with her, and she cooperates with him to deceive the rest of Gattaca.
Jerome Eugene Morrow
Jerome Eugene Morrow is the individual whom Vincent is posing as using samples of hair, blood, urine, etc. Once an accomplished swimmer, Jerome became depressed after placing second in a competition, and attempted suicide by jumping in front of a car, leading to his paralysis. The incident occurred abroad and is unrecorded; therefore, Jerome’s nearly-flawless genotype is ideal for deceiving Gattaca.
Anton Freeman is Vincent’s brother. He was conceived using genetic selection, unlike his brother. However, instead of becoming an astronaut, Anton becomes a detective, and works on the case which comes close to exposing his brother as an impostor. Upon discovering the truth, Anton warns his brother of the illegality of his actions, but does not expose him. Swimming competitions at the beach between Anton and Vincent become an important source of symbolism throughout the film.
Director Josef is a Gattaca worker and the murderer of the mission director. The case comes close to exposing Vincent’s true identity, but Director Josef’s confession clears his name.
Dr. Lamar is a doctor at Gattaca in charge of administering blood and urine tests to Vincent (as Eugene) and other Gattaca workers. Dr. Lamar later reveals that he knows Vincent has been using Eugene’s samples to pose as a “valid,” but he does not expose Vincent. He says that his son admires Vincent and expresses his hopes that his son, who does not have a superior genotype, will still be able to achieve his goals.
Marie and Antonio Freeman
Marie and Antonio Freeman are Vincent and Anton’s parents. They conceive Vincent naturally (without using genetic selection), but regret their decision upon hearing the disorders their son is at risk for, and choose to conceive their second son using genetic selection. Anton, being genetically superior, is deemed worthy of inheriting his father’s name.
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Much of your question is asking for your opinion rather than mine. Anton was given low probabilities for diseases like cancer and heart disease. Unlike Vincent, Anton had perfect eyesight and strong endurance.
The launches represent Vincent's dream of flying to Titan. He wants the freedom of leaving a world that confines him because of his birth. He wants live on his own terms and prove, mostly to himself, that he is extraordinary.