The Question and Answer section for A Modest Proposal and Other Satires is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
Swift's proposal is anything but modest, making the title, like the essay, a satire of epic proportion. The word modest is an exaggeration, leading the reader to believe the proposal itself will be simple..... but it's not.
It is believed that Swift wrote the proposal in response to Daniel Dafoes, The Generous Projector or, A Friendly Proposal to Prevent Murder and Other Enormous Abuses, By Erecting an Hospital for Foundlings and Bastard Children. (1728)
Swift's solution is to sell and eat children as a solution to overpopulation and poverty.