The Question and Answer section for A Modest Proposal and Other Satires is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
This is a very detailed question for this short answer forum. We only have a small space here.
Economic disparity is at the heart of the problem. Governments simply do not care that people are starving. The politics of the time was driven by economic disparity. Swift's persona highlights the economic inequality in Ireland and England with “...
In his satirical way, Swift is trying to solve the problem of the poor Irish having more kids than they can support. He is actually addressing English tyranny over the Irish.