When the penguins jump off the glacier, their gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as they fall to the water. When they eat fish, they obtain energy from their food via cellular respiration which can be stored as ATP and then used to power the muscles which allow them to climb back up the glacier. Enzymes assist in all of these processes, speeding up reactions and coupling ATP hydrolysis to otherwise non-spontaneous reactions.
Work Step by Step
This question is a general review-- skim the chapter for major concepts. It asks you to apply these both to the movement of the penguins and to how that is obtained at a cellular level.