Density independent factors are abiotic environmental factors whose effects on a population are unaffected by the number of organisms in the population, such as fires, floods, or temperature changes. Density dependent factors are biotic environmental factors whose effects on a population vary according to the number of organisms in the population, such as parasites, disease, or predators. Density independent factors could curb the human population by a flood wiping out a population on an island community. Density dependent factors could curb the human population by a contagious disease spreading through a community and killing many of the more vulnerable, such as infants or old people.
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Density dependent factors are factors such as disease or predators, and independent factors are factors such as fires or floods. They can both curb the human population, along with all populations.