## Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications (6th Edition)

$v_{ac}=16V$ $v_{cd}=-24V$
Using the diagram, we can apply KVL to the loop areas: $v_{ab}-v_{cb}-v_{ac}=0, v_{ac}=12-(-4) V=16V$ $v_{ab}-v_{cb}+v_{cd} +v_{da}=0, 12-(-4)+v_{cd}+8=0, v_{cd}=-24V$