Short Tales of Joseph Conrad

Legacy

After the publication of Chance in 1913, Conrad was the subject of more discussion and praise than any other English writer of the time. He had a genius for companionship, and his circle of friends, which he had begun assembling even prior to his first publications, included authors and other leading lights in the arts, such as Henry James, Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham, John Galsworthy, Edward Garnett, Garnett's wife Constance Garnett (translator of Russian literature), Stephen Crane, Hugh Walpole, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, Arnold Bennett, Norman Douglas, Jacob Epstein, T. E. Lawrence, André Gide, Paul Valéry, Maurice Ravel, Valery Larbaud, Saint-John Perse, Edith Wharton, James Huneker, anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski, Józef Retinger (later a founder of the European Movement, which led to the European Union, and author of Conrad and His Contemporaries). Conrad encouraged and mentored younger writers.[2] In the early 1900s he composed a short series of novels in collaboration with Ford Madox Ford.[53]

In 1919 and 1922 Conrad's growing renown and prestige among writers and critics in continental Europe fostered his hopes for a Nobel Prize in Literature. Interestingly, it was apparently the French and Swedes – not the English – who favoured Conrad's candidacy.[2]:512, 550 [note 31]

In April 1924 Conrad, who possessed a hereditary Polish status of nobility and coat-of-arms (Nałęcz), declined a (non-hereditary) British knighthood offered by Labour Party Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald.[note 32] [note 33] Conrad kept a distance from official structures — he never voted in British national elections — and seems to have been averse to public honours generally; he had already refused honorary degrees from Cambridge, Durham, Edinburgh, Liverpool, and Yale universities.[2]:570

Of Conrad's novels, Lord Jim (1900) and Nostromo (1904) are widely read as set texts and for pleasure. The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897), The Secret Agent (1907) and Under Western Eyes (1911) are also considered among his finest novels. Arguably his most influential work remains Heart of Darkness (1899), to which many have been introduced by Francis Ford Coppola's film, Apocalypse Now (1979), inspired by Conrad's novel and set during the Vietnam War; the novel's depiction of a journey into the darkness of the human psyche resonates with modern readers. Conrad's short stories, other novels, and nonfiction writings also continue to find favour with many readers and filmmakers.

In the People's Republic of Poland, translations of Conrad's works were published – all except Under Western Eyes, banned by the censors due to its advocacy of fairness and neutrality. Under Western Eyes was published in Poland in the 1980s as an underground "bibuła".[54]

Joseph Conrad was an influence on many subsequent writers, including D. H. Lawrence, T.S. Eliot, Maria Dąbrowska,[55] F. Scott Fitzgerald,[6] William Faulkner,[6] Gerald Basil Edwards, Ernest Hemingway,[56] Antoine de Saint-Exupéry,[55] André Malraux,[55] George Orwell,[7]:254 Graham Greene,[6] Malcolm Lowry, William Golding,[6] William S. Burroughs, Joseph Heller, Italo Calvino, Gabriel García Márquez,[6] J. G. Ballard, Chinua Achebe, John le Carré,[6] V. S. Naipaul,[6] Philip Roth,[57] Hunter S. Thompson, J. M. Coetzee,[6] Stephen Donaldson, and Salman Rushdie.[note 34]


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