Poe's Short Stories

Literary style and themes

Genres

Poe's best known fiction works are Gothic,[83] a genre he followed to appease the public taste.[84] His most recurring themes deal with questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of decomposition, concerns of premature burial, the reanimation of the dead, and mourning.[85] Many of his works are generally considered part of the dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to transcendentalism,[86] which Poe strongly disliked.[87] He referred to followers of the latter movement as "Frog-Pondians", after the pond on Boston Common.[88][89] and ridiculed their writings as "metaphor—run mad,"[90] lapsing into "obscurity for obscurity's sake" or "mysticism for mysticism's sake".[87] Poe once wrote in a letter to Thomas Holley Chivers that he did not dislike Transcendentalists, "only the pretenders and sophists among them".[91]

Beyond horror, Poe also wrote satires, humor tales, and hoaxes. For comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity.[84] "Metzengerstein", the first story that Poe is known to have published,[92] and his first foray into horror, was originally intended as a burlesque satirizing the popular genre.[93] Poe also reinvented science fiction, responding in his writing to emerging technologies such as hot air balloons in "The Balloon-Hoax".[94]

Poe wrote much of his work using themes aimed specifically at mass-market tastes.[95] To that end, his fiction often included elements of popular pseudosciences such as phrenology[96] and physiognomy.[97]

Literary theory

Poe's writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in his criticism and also in essays such as "The Poetic Principle".[98] He disliked didacticism[99] and allegory,[100] though he believed that meaning in literature should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface. Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art.[101] He believed that work of quality should be brief and focus on a specific single effect.[98] To that end, he believed that the writer should carefully calculate every sentiment and idea.[102]

In "The Philosophy of Composition", an essay in which Poe describes his method in writing "The Raven", he claims to have strictly followed this method. It has been questioned whether he really followed this system. T. S. Eliot said: "It is difficult for us to read that essay without reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with such calculation, he might have taken a little more pains over it: the result hardly does credit to the method."[103] Biographer Joseph Wood Krutch described the essay as "a rather highly ingenious exercise in the art of rationalization".[104]


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