Philosophical Essays and Texts of Leibniz

Notes

  1. ^ Franz Exner, "Über Leibnitz'ens Universal-Wissenschaft", 1843; "Universalwissenschaft" in the Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon; Stanley Burris, "Leibniz's Influence on 19th Century Logic", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  2. ^ The History of Philosophy, Vol. IV: Modern Philosophy: From Descartes to Leibniz by Frederick C. Copleston (1958)
  3. ^ "It is in Leibniz that Tarde finds the main conditions for the metaphysics of possession.He sees in Monadology (1714) the beginning of a movement of dissolution of classical ontology (notably the identity of "being" and "simplicity"), which would, in a still implicitand unthinking form, find its most obvious confirmation in today's science." In: "The Dynamics of Possession: An Introduction to The Sociology of Gabriel Tarde" by Didier Debaise
  4. ^ see inscription of the engraving depicted below
  5. ^ "Leibniz" entry in Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers, 1998.
  6. ^ Max Mangold (ed.), ed. (2005). Duden-Aussprachewörterbuch (Duden Pronunciation Dictionary) (in German) (7th ed.). Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut GmbH. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7. 
  7. ^ Eva-Maria Krech et al. (ed.), ed. (2010). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (German Pronunciation Dictionary) (in German) (1st ed.). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG. ISBN 978-3-11-018203-3. 
  8. ^ David Smith, pp. 173–181 (1929)
  9. ^ Roughly 40%, 35%, and 25%, respectively.www.gwlb.de. Leibniz-Nachlass (i.e. Legacy of Leibniz), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek (one of the three Official Libraries of the German state Lower Saxony).
  10. ^ Baird, Forrest E.; Walter Kaufmann (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6. 
  11. ^ It is possible that the words "in Aquarius" refer to the Moon (the Sun in Cancer; Sagittarius rising (Ascendant)); see Astro-Databank chart of Gottfried Leibniz.
  12. ^ The original has "1/4 uff 7 uhr" but there is no reason to assume that in the 17th century this meant a quarter to seven. The quote is given by Hartmut Hecht in Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Teubner-Archiv zur Mathematik, Volume 2, 1992), in the first lines of chapter 2, Der junge Leibniz, p. 15; see H. Hecht, Der junge Leibniz; see also G. E. Guhrauer, G. W. Frhr. v. Leibnitz. B. 1. Breslau 1846, Anm. S. 4.
  13. ^ Mackie (1845), 21
  14. ^ Mackie (1845), 22
  15. ^ Mackie (1845), 26
  16. ^ A few copies were produced as requested for the habilitation procedure; it was reprinted without his consent in 1690.
  17. ^ Jolley, Nicholas (1995). The Cambridge Companion to Leibniz. Cambridge University Press. :20
  18. ^ Simmons, George (2007). Calculus Gems: Brief Lives and Memorable Mathematics. MAA. :143
  19. ^ Mackie (1845), 38
  20. ^ Mackie (1845), 39
  21. ^ Mackie (1845), 40
  22. ^ Aiton 1985: 312
  23. ^ Ariew R., G.W. Leibniz, life and works, p.21 in The Cambridge Companion to Leibniz, ed. by N. Jolley, Cambridge University Press, 1994, ISBN 0521365880
  24. ^ Mackie (1845), 43
  25. ^ Mackie (1845), 44-45
  26. ^ Mackie (1845), 58-61
  27. ^ Mackie (1845), 69-70
  28. ^ Mackie (1845), 73-74
  29. ^ On the encounter between Newton and Leibniz and a review of the evidence, see Alfred Rupert Hall, Philosophers at War: The Quarrel Between Newton and Leibniz, (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 44–69.
  30. ^ Mackie (1845), p.117-118
  31. ^ For a study of Leibniz's correspondence with Sophia Charlotte, see MacDonald Ross, George, 1990, "Leibniz’s Exposition of His System to Queen Sophie Charlotte and Other Ladies." In Leibniz in Berlin, ed. H. Poser and A. Heinekamp, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1990, 61-69.
  32. ^ Mackie (1845), 109
  33. ^ See Wiener IV.6 and Loemker § 40. Also see a curious passage titled "Leibniz's Philosophical Dream," first published by Bodemann in 1895 and translated on p. 253 of Morris, Mary, ed. and trans., 1934. Philosophical Writings. Dent & Sons Ltd.
  34. ^ "Christian Mathematicians – Leibniz GOD & MATH Thinking Christianly About Math Education". 
  35. ^ Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (2012). Peter Loptson, ed. Discourse on Metaphysics and Other Writings. Broadview Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9781554810116. The answer is unknowable, but it may not be unreasonable to see him, at least in theological terms, as essentially a deist. He is a determinist: there are no miracles (the events so called being merely instances of infrequently occurring natural laws); Christ has no real role in the system; we live forever, and hence we carry on after our deaths, but then everything — every individual substance — carries on forever. Nonetheless, Leibniz is a theist. His system is generated from, and needs, the postulate of a creative god. In fact, though, despite Leibniz's protestations, his God is more the architect and engineer of the vast complex world-system than the embodiment of love of Christian orthodoxy.  |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  36. ^ Christopher Ernest Cosans (2009). Owen's Ape & Darwin's Bulldog: Beyond Darwinism and Creationism. Indiana University Press. pp. 102–103. ISBN 9780253220516. In advancing his system of mechanics, Newton claimed that collisions of celestial objects would cause a loss of energy that would require God to intervene from time to time to maintain order in the solar system (Vailati 1997, 37–42). In criticizing this implication, Leibniz remarks: "Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time; otherwise it would cease to move." (Leibniz 1715, 675) Leibniz argues that any scientific theory that relies on God to perform miracles after He had first made the universe indicates that God lacked sufficient foresight or power to establish adequate natural laws in the first place. In defense of Newton's theism, Clarke is unapologetic: "'tis not a diminution but the true glory of his workmanship that nothing is done without his continual government and inspection"' (Leibniz 1715, 676–677). Clarke is believed to have consulted closely with Newton on how to respond to Leibniz. He asserts that Leibniz's deism leads to "the notion of materialism and fate" (1715, 677), because it excludes God from the daily workings of nature.  |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  37. ^ Shelby D. Hunt (2003). Controversy in Marketing Theory: For Reason, Realism, Truth, and Objectivity. M.E. Sharpe. p. 33. ISBN 9780765609311. Consistent with the liberal views of the Enlightenment, Leibniz was an optimist with respect to human reasoning and scientific progress (Popper 1963, p.69). Although he was a great reader and admirer of Spinoza, Leibniz, being a confirmed deist, rejected emphatically Spinoza's pantheism: God and nature, for Leibniz, were not simply two different "labels" for the same "thing".  |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  38. ^ Ariew & Garber, 69; Loemker, §§36, 38
  39. ^ Ariew & Garber, 138; Loemker, §47; Wiener, II.4
  40. ^ Ariew & Garber, 272–84; Loemker, §§14, 20, 21; Wiener, III.8
  41. ^ Mates (1986), chpts. 7.3, 9
  42. ^ Loemker 717
  43. ^ See Jolley (1995: 129–31), Woolhouse and Francks (1998), and Mercer (2001).
  44. ^ Loemker 311
  45. ^ For a precis of what Leibniz meant by these and other Principles, see Mercer (2001: 473–84). For a classic discussion of Sufficient Reason and Plenitude, see Lovejoy (1957).
  46. ^ Rutherford (1998) is a detailed scholarly study of Leibniz's theodicy.
  47. ^ Magill, Frank (ed.). Masterpieces of World Philosophy. New York: Harper Collins (1990).
  48. ^ Magill, Frank (ed.) (1990)
  49. ^ The Art of Discovery 1685, Wiener 51
  50. ^ Many of his memoranda are translated in Parkinson 1966.
  51. ^ Loemker, however, who translated some of Leibniz's works into English, said that the symbols of chemistry were real characters, so there is disagreement among Leibniz scholars on this point.
  52. ^ Preface to the General Science, 1677. Revision of Rutherford's translation in Jolley 1995: 234. Also Wiener I.4
  53. ^ A good introductory discussion of the "characteristic" is Jolley (1995: 226–40). An early, yet still classic, discussion of the "characteristic" and "calculus" is Couturat (1901: chpts. 3,4).
  54. ^ Struik (1969), 367
  55. ^ Jesseph, Douglas M. (1998). "Leibniz on the Foundations of the Calculus: The Question of the Reality of Infinitesimal Magnitudes". Perspectives on Science. 6.1&2: 6–40. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  56. ^ Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Freiherr von; Gerhardt, Carl Immanuel (trans.) (1920). The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. Open Court Publishing. p. 93. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  57. ^ For an English translation of this paper, see Struik (1969: 271–84), who also translates parts of two other key papers by Leibniz on the calculus.
  58. ^ Katz, Mikhail; Sherry, David (2012), "Leibniz's Infinitesimals: Their Fictionality, Their Modern Implementations, and Their Foes from Berkeley to Russell and Beyond", Erkenntnis, arXiv:1205.0174, doi:10.1007/s10670-012-9370-y 
  59. ^ Loemker §27
  60. ^ Mates (1986), 240
  61. ^ HIRANO, Hideaki. "Leibniz's Cultural Pluralism And Natural Law". Retrieved March 10, 2010. 
  62. ^ Mandelbrot (1977), 419. Quoted in Hirano (1997).
  63. ^ Ariew and Garber 117, Loemker §46, W II.5. On Leibniz and physics, see the chapter by Garber in Jolley (1995) and Wilson (1989).
  64. ^ See H. G. Alexander, ed., The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 25–26.
  65. ^ See Ariew and Garber 155–86, Loemker §§53–55, W II.6–7a
  66. ^ On Leibniz and biology, see Loemker (1969a: VIII).
  67. ^ On Leibniz and psychology, see Loemker (1969a: IX).
  68. ^ Larry M. Jorgensen, The Principle of Continuity and Leibniz's Theory of Consciousness
  69. ^ D. Brett King, Wayne Viney and William Woody. A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context (2009), 150–153.
  70. ^ Nicholls and Leibscher, Thinking the Unconscious: Nineteenth-Century German Thought (2010), 6.
  71. ^ King et al. (2009), 150–153.
  72. ^ Nicholls and Leibscher, Thinking the Unconscious: Nineteenth-Century German Thought (2010), 9.
  73. ^ Klempe SH (2011). "The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 47 (2): 187–99. doi:10.1002/jhbs.20495. PMID 21462196. 
  74. ^ Aiton (1985), 107–114, 136
  75. ^ Davis (2000) discusses Leibniz's prophetic role in the emergence of calculating machines and of formal languages.
  76. ^ See Couturat (1901): 473–78.
  77. ^ Couturat (1901), 115
  78. ^ See N. Rescher, Leibniz and Cryptography (Pittsburgh, University Library Systems, University of Pittsburgh, 2012).
  79. ^ The Reality Club: Wake Up Call for Europe Tech
  80. ^ On Leibniz's projects for scientific societies, see Couturat (1901), App. IV.
  81. ^ See, for example, Ariew and Garber 19, 94, 111, 193; Riley 1988; Loemker §§2, 7, 20, 29, 44, 59, 62, 65; W I.1, IV.1–3
  82. ^ See (in order of difficulty) Jolley (2005: chpt. 7), Gregory Brown's chapter in Jolley (1995), Hostler (1975), and Riley (1996).
  83. ^ Loemker: 59, fn 16. Translation revised.
  84. ^ Loemker: 58, fn 9
  85. ^ See José Andrés-Gallego: 42. “Are Humanism and Mixed Methods Related? Leibniz’s Universal (Chinese) Dream”: Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 29(2) (2015): 118-132: http://mmr.sagepub.com/content/9/2/118.abstract.
  86. ^ Perkins (2004), 117
  87. ^ a b c Mungello, David E. (1971). "Leibniz's Interpretation of Neo-Confucianism". Philosophy East and West 21 (1): 3–22. doi:10.2307/1397760. 
  88. ^ On Leibniz, the I Ching, and binary numbers, see Aiton (1985: 245–48). Leibniz's writings on Chinese civilization are collected and translated in Cook and Rosemont (1994), and discussed in Perkins (2004).
  89. ^ Later translated as Loemker 267 and Woolhouse and Francks 30
  90. ^ A VI, 4, n. 324, pp. 1643-1649 with the title: Principia Logico-Metaphysica
  91. ^
  92. ^ Vasilyev, 1993
  93. ^ Russell, 1900
  94. ^ Jolley, 217–19
  95. ^ "Letters from and to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz within the collection of manuscript papers of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz". UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  96. ^ 1695 letter to Vincent Placcius in Gerhardt.
  97. ^ a b www.leibniz-edition.de. See photograph there.

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