Maniac Magee is a novel written by American author Jerry Spinelli and published in 1990. Exploring themes of racism and homelessness, it follows the story of an orphan boy looking for a home in the fictional Pennsylvania town of Two Mills. He becomes a local legend for feats of athleticism and fearlessness, and his ignorance of sharp racial boundaries in the town. It is popular in elementary school curricula, and has been used in scholarly studies on the relationship of children to racial identity and reading. A film adaptation was released in 2003.Major characters
- Jeffrey Lionel "Maniac" Magee is an orphan and finds himself in Two Mills, where he becomes a local legend while trying to find a home. He has astonishing athletic abilities, runs everywhere he goes, can untie any knot, is allergic to pizza, and crosses the barrier between the East End and West End as if blind to racial distinction. He has done many heroic feats such as running for a long period of time, hitting many home runs in a row, and entering Finsterwald's backyard.
- Amanda Beale is the first person Jeffrey meets in Two Mills. She carries her books in a suitcase so they aren't ruined by her younger siblings, Hester and Lester. She defends Jeffrey from Mars Bar and eventually provides him with a home.
- Mars Bar Thompson is the worst kid in the East End and the book's antagonist. He dislikes Jeffrey's presence in the East End, which is exacerbated when Jeffrey beats him in a race. However, he eventually rescues Russell McNab from the trolley truss, and offers Jeffery a place for a while. As his nickname implies, he is known for eating Mars Bars. His real first name is never revealed.
- John McNab is infuriated when he cannot strike out Jeffrey with his ball. After acting as a bully, he welcomes him into his home when he brings back John's younger brothers, Piper and Russell, after their attempt to run away to Mexico. He remains convinced that the black East Enders are planning a rebellion.
- Piper and Russell McNab are John McNab's younger brothers who play hookey, steal, and constantly try to run away from home. In their house, they use toy machine guns to shoot the "rebels" from the East End. Piper also had a party at the end of the book.
- Earl Grayson is the groundskeeper at the zoo and resident of the YMCA, though he was once a minor league baseball pitcher who struck out Willie Mays. He becomes friends with Jeffrey, who listens to his stories and Jeffrey teaches him to read. They end up living together in a house, which makes him responsible. He is very kind and cares about Jeffrey.
- Mrs. Beale is the kind and caring mother of Amanda, Hester, and Lester. She is very sweet and thoughtful to Maniac as well.
- Hester and Lester are the brother and sister of Amanda Beale, and the son and daughter of Mrs. Beale. They are very hyperactive, and will mess up anything that they can get their hands on by drawing on things with crayons.
Jeffrey Magee's parents were in a trolley when a drunk driver crashed and sunk it into the Schuylkill River in Bridgeport, Pennsylvania, orphaning him at age three. After living with his Aunt Dot and Uncle Dan in another town and enduring their mutual hatred and silence for eight years, he runs away during a school musical performance. One year and 200 miles later, he finds himself across the river from Bridgeport in Two Mills, where Hector Street divides the East End from the West End.
He meets Amanda Beale, an East Ender who carries her suitcase full of books to keep them away from her little brother and sister, Hester and Lester, who crayon everything in sight, and borrows one before continuing his dash through town. Along the way, he intercepts a football pass made to local football star James "Hands" Down, infuriates gigantic little leaguer John McNab by hitting home runs off his fastball, and saves an unlucky child from Finsterwald’s backyard, which is full of negative energy. Because of these acts, he earned the nickname "Maniac" and started a local legend.
When "Mars Bar" Thompson corners Jeffrey and rips a page from Amanda's book, he is rescued by Amanda. He finds a home there, helping Mr. and Mrs. Beale with the chores and pacifying Hester and Lester. Soon though, a few East Enders make it clear to him that they don't want him in there anymore by writing racist graffiti on the Beales' front door, "Fishbelly go home" to be exact. His final effort to gain acceptance is by untying the famous Cobble’s Knot. After finishing the task he is praised by everyone as confetti is thrown into the air. Amanda realizes, too late, that it was made from the pages of her favorite book, an encyclopedia A Edition. Jeffrey runs away, taking shelter at the buffalo pen at the zoo.
At the zoo, Jeffrey meets Earl Grayson, a minor-league baseball pitcher who turns out to be a groundskeeper, who never learned to read, and who insists he has no stories to tell. For a few months Jeffrey has a home again with him, helping him at work, celebrating holidays with him, and teaching him to read. Grayson winds up dying 5 days after Christmas, and Jeffery runs off again.
On the verge of death he encounters Piper and Russell, child ruffians that turn out to be John McNab's brothers. He leads them back home, bribing them with free pizza, and stays at their cockroach-infested, waste filled house. Here, he finds the worst that the West End has to offer, as he learns that the McNabs are making a bunker because they believe the East End is planning a rebellion. He endures the coarseness and squalor of their home in hopes of keeping Piper and Russell in school and under control, but he is kicked out when he crushes Piper and Russell's toy guns.
After beating Mars Bar in a foot race and goading him into crashing Piper's birthday party at the McNabs' house, Jeffrey is homeless again. He moves back into the buffalo pen, and runs for miles every morning before Two Mills wakes up. Before long, Mars Bar starts running with him as if by coincidence, and they never say a word to each other. One day they come across a hysterical Piper McNab, who frantically leads them to Russell, stuck on the trolley trestle where Jeffrey's parents died. He walks away silently, nearly unconscious and stunned by fear, while Mars Bar rescues Russell, becoming a hero in his eyes. Jeffrey retreats once again to the buffalo pen, where Mars Bar leads Amanda to it. She brings him to her house in a huff, with Jeffery and Mars Bar following her.Two Mills and Norristown
The imaginary town of Two Mills is based on Jerry Spinelli’s childhood town of Norristown, PA. Spinelli has said that material from the story was inspired by his childhood experiences there, and a number of geographical correspondences confirm this. Norristown, like Two Mills, is across the Schuylkill River from Bridgeport, and neighboring towns include Conshohocken, Jeffersonville and Worcester, all of which are mentioned in the novel.  The Elmwood Park Zoo is in Norristown, and Valley Forge, where Maniac wanders, is nearby as well. There is also a street named Hector Street in Conshohocken.Reception
The book was well-received upon publication, variously lauded in reviews as "always affecting,"  having "broad appeal," and being full of "pathos and compassion."  Booklist reviewer Deborah Abbot says, "...this unusual novel magically weaves timely issues of homelessness, racial prejudice, and illiteracy into a complicated story rich in characters and details...an energetic piece of writing that bursts with creativity, enthusiasm, and hope." 
Reviewers noted that the theme of racism was uncommon for "middle readers". Criticism concentrated on Spinelli's choice of framing it as a legend, which Shoemaker calls a "cop-out,"  which frees him from having to make it real or possible. It has also been called "long-winded," and seeming like a "chalkboard lesson."
Awards and honors
Awards and honors for the book include:
- 1990: Boston Globe/Horn Book Award
- 1991: Carolyn Field Award, Newbery Medal (American Library Association)
- 1992: Charlotte Award, Dorothy Canfield Fisher Award, Flicker Tale Award, Indian Paintbrush Book Award, Rhode Island Children's Book Award
- 1993: Buckeye Children's Book Award, Land of Enchantment Award, Mark Twain Award, Massachusetts Children's Book Award, Nevada Young Readers' Award, Pacific Northwest Library Association Young Reader's Choice Award, Rebecca Caudill Young Reader's Book Award, West Virginia Children's Book Award, William Allen White Award
The U.S. National Education Association named Maniac Magee one of "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children" based on a 2007 online poll. In 2012 it was ranked number 40 among all-time children's novels in a survey published by School Library Journal, a monthly with primarily U.S. audience.
Use for educational and research purposes
The book is popular in elementary schools as a historical-fiction novel. Many study units and teaching guides are available. including a study guide by the author. It has been used as a tool in scholarly work on childhood education and development. Fondrie cites it as an example in a discussion of how to bring up and discuss issues of race and class among young students. McGinley and Kamberlis use it in a study of how children use reading and writing as “vehicles for personal, social, and political exploration.”  Along the same lines, Lehr and Thompson examine classroom discussions as a reflection of the teacher’s role as cultural mediator and the response of children to moral dilemmas, and Enciso studies expressions of social identity in the responses of children to Maniac Magee.
In a less pedagogical vein, Roberts uses the character of Amanda Beale as an archetypical "female rescuer" in a study of Newbery books, and Sullivan suggests the book as being useful in discussions of reading attitudes and difficulties.Adaptations
The book was adapted as an audiobook by Listening Library in 2005 (ISBN 978-0-307-24318-8)  and as a TV movie in 2003, which was nominated for the Humanitas prize in the children’s live action category.References
- ^ Long Bostrom, Kathleen (June 2003). Winning Authors: Profiles of the Newbery Medalists. Libraries Unlimited. pp. 247–251. ISBN 1-56308-877-0.
- ^ Spinelli, Jerry (2001). Literature Circle Guides: Maniac Magee (Grades 4-8). p. 9. ISBN 0-439-16362-5.
- ^ a b Spinelli, Jerry (1990). Maniac Magee. p. 122. ISBN 1-55999-387-1.
- ^ a b "Maniac Magee". Kirkus. May 1, 1990.
- ^ a b Shoemaker, Joel (June 1, 1990). "Maniac Magee". School Library Journal.
- ^ Abbot, Deborah (April 21, 1991). "Review of Maniac Magee". Booklist. p. 33.
- ^ "Maniac Magee". Publishers’ Weekly. May 11, 1990.
- ^ "Boston Globe — Horn Book Award, past winners". Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Carolyn Field Award, past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Newbery Medal, past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Charlotte Award, past winners" (PDF). Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Dorothy Canfield Fisher Award, past winners". Archived from the original on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "NDCBA, past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Indian Paintbrush Award, past nominees and winners" (PDF). Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Rhode Island Children’s Book Award, past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Buckeye Children's book award/winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Land of Enchantment book award past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Mark Twain Award Previous Winners". Missouri Association of School Librarians (MASL). Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- ^ a b "JRank Biographies: Jerry Spinelli/Sidelights". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Nevada Young Readers award: Past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "PNLA children's choice past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Rebecca Caudill Young Reader’s Book Award, past winners/winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "William Allen White Award: Past winners". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ National Education Association (2007). "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- ^ Bird, Elizabeth (July 7, 2012). "Top 100 Chapter Book Poll Results". A Fuse #8 Production. Blog. School Library Journal (blog.schoollibraryjournal.com). Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- ^ "amazon.com, search results for "Maniac Magee guide"". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ Spinelli, Jerry (2001). Literature Circle Guides: Maniac Magee (Grades 4-8). ISBN 0-439-16362-5.
- ^ Fondrie, Suzanne (2001). "Gentle doses of racism: Whiteness and children’s literature". Journal of Children's Literature (fall). pp. 9–13.
- ^ McGinley, William; Kamberlis, George (December 1993). Maniac Magee and Ragtime Tumpie: Children negotiating self and world through reading and writing. 43rd Annual meeting of the national reading conference. Charlston, SC.
- ^ Lehr, Susan; Thompson, Deborah (March 2000). "The Dynamic Nature of Response: Children Reading and Responding to Maniac Magee and The Friendship". Reading Teacher. 53 (6). pp. 480–493.
- ^ Enisco, Patricia (1994). "Cultural Identity and Response to Literature: Running Lessons from Maniac Magee". Language Arts. 71 (November). pp. 524–533.
- ^ Roberts, Sherron (April 1998). The female rescuer in Newbery books: Who is she?. Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Diego, CA.
- ^ Sullivan, Emilie (September 1994). "Three Good Juvenile Books with Literacy Models". Journal of Reading. p. 55.
- ^ "Random House". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "IMDb: Maniac Magee". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- ^ "IMDb: Humanitas Prize 2003". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- Author Jerry Spinelli's homepage
|Preceded by Number the Stars||Newbery Medal recipient 1991||Succeeded by Shiloh|
|Preceded by The Doll in the Garden: A Ghost Story||Winner of the William Allen White Children's Book Award 1993||Succeeded by Shiloh|