One of the major themes is the existence of opposing forces and the idea that both are necessary.
The novel refers to the idea of Gnosticism, particularly the god Abraxas, showing the influence of Carl Jung's psychology. According to Hesse, the novel is a story of Jungian individuation, the process of opening up to one's unconsciousness.
Women in Demian
Women play a vital role in the Jungian interpretation of Demian. At the beginning, Sinclair looks up towards his sisters and mother, and even his house maid. While he was in school, he sees a beautiful woman whom he calls Beatrice, and towards the end of the novel, when Sinclair is an adolescent man, he discovers Demian's mother, Frau Eva. These women do not have major roles in the story, but Hesse uses them symbolically as facets of the depths of Sinclair's mind.