Citizen Kane


  1. ^ "I did a very elaborate production for [Heart of Darkness], such as I've never done again — never could," Welles said. "I shot my bolt on preproduction on that picture. We designed every camera setup and everything else — did enormous research in aboriginal, Stone Age cultures in order to reproduce what the story called for. I'm sorry not to have got the chance to do it."[7]:31
  2. ^ Welles later used the subjective camera in The Magnificent Ambersons, in a sequence that was later all but eliminated because it did not work in that picture. "Heart of Darkness is one of the few stories that it's very well adapted to, because it relies so heavily on narration," Welles said. "The camera was going to be Marlow … He's in the pilot house and he can see himself reflected in the glass through which you see the jungle. So it isn't that business of a hand-held camera mooching around pretending to walk like a man."[7]:31
  3. ^ Only four of the five scripts reached the air: "The Murder of Roger Ackroyd", "Dodsworth", "Vanity Fair" and "Huckleberry Finn".[8]:242
  4. ^ Geraldine Fitzgerald claimed to have suggested the multiple-points-of-view structure to Welles. Soon after Citizen Kane was released, she reportedly told him, "You know, that's taken from that idea I gave you," to which Welles replied, "I don't want you talking about it."[4]:246
  5. ^ Welles and Lederer later became great friends.[6]:343
  6. ^ "[Welles] claims he wrote a parallel script," Houseman told Leaming. "That's all bullshit. He never wrote a word. I can tell you positively he didn't." Leaming notes, "This assertion will seem odd to anyone who has examined Houseman's personal papers deposited at UCLA."[6]:204
  7. ^ For the next five weeks Mankiewicz wrote the first draft of the script for MGM's Comrade X and received no screen credit. He also continued to work on the script for Welles's picture, sending a partially reworked script in early June that was not used. At this time he obtained a copy of Welles's draft and sent it, with his complaints, to Houseman in New York. Houseman responded on June 16 that he liked most of Welles's new scenes.[5]:155
  8. ^ In 1947 Ferdinand Lundberg sued the creators of Citizen Kane for copyright infringement. In his November 1950 testimony Mankiewicz freely stated that he had read Imperial Hearst (1937) but insisted that he knew firsthand things that had appeared only in the book. The trial ended in a hung jury. RKO settled out of court.[16]:120
  9. ^ Welles said, "Citizen Kane came from George Schaefer … It's a great title. We'd sat around for months trying to think of a name for it. Mankiewicz couldn't, I couldn't, none of the actors — we had a contest on. A secretary came up with one that was so bad I'll never forget it: A Sea of Upturned Faces."[7]:82
  10. ^ Act Three of Houseman's 1972 autobiography Run Through is dedicated "to the memory of Herman Mankiewicz".[10]:445–461
  11. ^ In May 1969 Houseman recorded in his journal that he had a long lunch with Kael, who "seems highly agitated over her 'discovery' of Herman Mankiewicz. I gave her all the information I had and will send her more."[26]:389
  12. ^ In a sworn written statement given in May 1941, Richard Baer stated that "the idea of Citizen Kane was the original conception of Orson Welles … The revisions made by Welles were not limited to mere general suggestions but included the actual re-writing of words, dialogue, changing of sequences, ideas and characterizations and also the addition or elimination of certain scenes."[4]:239
  13. ^ "The by-line carried only my name," Bogdanovich later wrote, "but Orson had taken a strong hand in revising and rewriting. Why shouldn't he? He was fighting for his life."[30]:xxiv
  14. ^ "The Kane Mutiny" also appears in Focus on Orson Welles (1976), edited by Ronald Gottesman, and is excerpted in Bogdanovich's new introduction to the 1998 edition of This is Orson Welles.
  15. ^ Welles states, "There's all that stuff about McCormick and the opera. I drew a lot from that from my Chicago days. And Samuel Insull."[7]:49
  16. ^ Mankiewicz began his review, "Miss Gladys Wallis, an aging, hopelessly incompetent amateur …" Leland's review begins, "Miss Susan Alexander, a pretty but hopelessly incompetent amateur …"
  17. ^ "The School for Scandal, with Mrs. Insull as Lady Teazle, was produced at the Little Theatre last night. It will be reviewed in tomorrow's Times."
  18. ^ "Hearst maintained the public stance that he never saw the film, but he knew what was in it. Charlie Lederer said it was the portrayal of Marion as pitiful drunk – that Hearst would not abide."
  19. ^ Lederer confuses Walska's husband Harold F. McCormick with another member of the powerful Chicago family, one who also inspired Welles – crusading publisher Robert R. McCormick of the Chicago Tribune.[17]:6
  20. ^ Mankiewicz biographer Richard Meryman wrote, "The prototype of Charles Foster Kane's sled was this bicycle … The bike became a symbol of Herman's bitterness about his Prussian father and the lack of love in his childhood."[8]:300
  21. ^ The source for Peck's giving the Rosebud nickname to Phoebe Hearst is a 1977 oral history interview with a researcher named Vonnie Eastham, conducted by California State University, Chico.[76]:469
  22. ^ According to RKO records, Sloane was paid $2,400 for shaving his head.[1]
  23. ^ Speaking to Bogdanovich, Welles corrects himself when speaking about who suggested the "test" shooting: "That was Toland's idea — no, it was Ferguson's idea, the art director."[103]:19:25–19:31
  24. ^ "I used the whole Mercury cast, heavily disguised by darkness," Welles said. "And there they all are — if you look carefully, you can see them. Everybody in the movie is in it. … Yes, I'm there."[7]:78
  25. ^ No figures can be found for the cost of filming Susan's attempted suicide, but filming the nightclub scene was budgeted at $1,038 and cost $1,376.79.[9]:74
  26. ^ "It took nerve to shoot from down there, with that steel brace right in front of the camera, but I thought rightly that at that point they'd be looking at Leland and not at me."[7]:61–62
  27. ^ Speaking of the credit given Toland, Welles said, "Nobody in those days – only the stars, the director, and the producer – got separate cards. Gregg deserved it, didn't he?"[7]:61
  28. ^ Seiderman's work with contact lenses in films led to a medical formula for soft contact lenses that he developed in the 1970s.[123]
  29. ^ After becoming head of the RKO make-up department, Seiderman left in 1946 to help recreate faces for disfigured U.S. soldiers.[124]
  30. ^ Kevin Brownlow believes that Lean's brother David was influential on (if not co-writer of) this review. Years later Welles thanked David Lean for the article.[155]:notes
  31. ^ 871,261 admissions[171]
  32. ^ Bordwell has hypothesized that Bazin was influenced by publicity about the film's innovations that were published in France during its first release. These included interviews by Welles and the publication of Toland's article "The Motion Picture Cameraman" in the January 1947 issue of La Revue du Cinéma. Bordwell believes that Bazin was aware of the legend of film’s innovations before having seen it.[112]:72–73
  33. ^ Another early pop culture reference occurred in Welles's The Magnificent Ambersons, which includes a brief glimpse of a newspaper article written by "Jed Leland".[202]
  34. ^ The same item had been sold by Christie's in December 1991, together with a working script from The Magnificent Ambersons, for $11,000.[242]
  35. ^ The colorized Citizen Kane footage appears at approximately 1:17:00.
  36. ^ Reprinted in Gottesman, Ronald (ed.). Focus on Citizen Kane. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976. ISBN 0-13-949214-3
  37. ^ Excerpted in "My Orson", Bogdanovich's new introduction to the second edition of This is Orson Welles[30]:xxiv–xxvii
  38. ^ Reprinted in Gottesman, Ronald (ed.). Perspectives on Citizen Kane. New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 1996. ISBN 978-0-8161-1616-4
  39. ^ Reprinted in Naremore, James (ed.). Orson Welles's Citizen Kane: A Casebook in Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-19-515892-2
  40. ^ Contains Kael's controversial and much-derided essay "Raising Kane", originally printed in The New Yorker (February 20 and 27, 1971), as well as the full script by Mankiewicz and Welles.
  41. ^ Reprinted in Rosenbaum, Jonathan (ed.). Discovering Orson Welles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-520-25123-6

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