The film was a major influence on film directors of the Iranian New Wave, such as Jafar Panahi and Dariush Mehrjui. Other directors that called it an influence are Satyajit Ray, Ken Loach, Giorgio Mangiamele, Bimal Roy, Anurag Kashyap, Balu Mahendra, Basu Chatterjee and Isao Takahata.
The film was used as source material for the 1985 cult classic Pee-Wee's Big Adventure.
The film was parodied in the 1989 film The Icicle Thief.
Bicycle Thieves was featured in Robert Altman's 1992 film The Player.
The second season premiere of the Netflix series Master of None is a homage to the film. At the start of the episode, "Bicycle Thieves" is at the top of a stack of DVDs on Dev's night stand.