Beowulf

References

Notes

  1. ^ "wíg" means "fight, battle, war, conflict"[18] and "láf" means "remnant, left-over"[19]
  2. ^ That is, R.D. Fulk's 1992 A History of Old English Meter.
  3. ^ For instance, by Chauncey Brewster Tinker in The Translations of Beowulf,[49] a comprehensive survey of 19th-century translations and editions of Beowulf.

Citations

  1. ^ "Beowulf – What You Need to Know about the Epic Poem". Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  2. ^ Tolkien 1958, p. 127.
  3. ^ Hieatt, A. Kent (1983). Beowulf and Other Old English Poems. New York: Bantam Books. p. xi–xiii. 
  4. ^ Chase, Colin. (1997). The dating of Beowulf. pp. 9–22. University of Toronto Press
  5. ^ Robinson 2001, ?: 'The name of the poet who assembled from tradition the materials of his story and put them in their final form is not known to us.'
  6. ^ Robinson 2001: 'Like most Old English poems, Beowulf has no title in the unique manuscript in which it survives (British Library, Cotton Vitellius A.xv, which was copied round the year 1000 AD), but modern scholars agree in naming it after the hero whose life is its subject’.
  7. ^ Mitchell & Robinson 1998, p. 6.
  8. ^ Abrams & Greenblatt 1986, p. 19.
  9. ^ Beowulf (dual-language ed.). New York: Doubleday. 1977. 
  10. ^ Newton, Sam (1993). The Origins of Beowulf and the Pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia. Woodbridge, Suffolk, ENG: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 0-85991-361-9. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Kiernan 1996, footnote 69 p. 162, 90, 258, 257, 171, xix–xx, xix, 3, 4, 277–278, 23–34, 29, 29, 60, 62, footnote 69 162
  12. ^ Shippey, TA (Summer 2001). "Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulf and Elsewhere, Notes and Bibliography". In the Heroic Age (5). 
  13. ^ a b c Klingmark, Elisabeth. Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59 (in Swedish). Riksantikvarieämbetet. 
  14. ^ a b c Nerman, Birger (1925). Det svenska rikets uppkomst. Stockholm. 
  15. ^ "Ottar's Mound". Swedish National Heritage Board. Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  16. ^ a b Niles, John D. (October 2006). "Beowulf's Great Hall". History Today 56 (10): 40–44. 
  17. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). "Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia" (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English). p. 115. Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  18. ^ "Wíg". Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "Láf". Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  20. ^ Beowulf, 675-687
  21. ^ Beowulf, 757-765
  22. ^ Beowulf, 766-789
  23. ^ Beowulf, 793-804
  24. ^ 808-823
  25. ^ Jack 1997, p. 123.
  26. ^ Hansen, E. T. (2008). "Hrothgar's 'sermon' in Beowulf as parental wisdom". Anglo-Saxon England 10. doi:10.1017/S0263675100003203. 
  27. ^ Beowulf (PDF), SA: MU .
  28. ^ S. Downey (February 2015), "Review of The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment", Choice Reviews Online 52 (6), doi:10.5860/CHOICE.187152 
  29. ^ a b Neidorf, Leonard, ed. (2014), The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment, Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, ISBN 978-1-84384387-0 
  30. ^ Lord, Albert (2000). The Singer of Tales, Volume 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 200. 
  31. ^ Tolkien 1958, p. 127.
  32. ^ Shippey, Tom (2007), "Tolkien and the Beowulf-poet", Roots and Branches, Walking Tree Publishers, ISBN 978-3-905703-05-4 
  33. ^ Tolkien 1958, p. 127.
  34. ^ a b Kiernan 1996.
  35. ^ Lapidge, M. (2000). "The Archetype of Beowulf". Anglo-Saxon England 29. pp. 5–41. doi:10.1017/s0263675100002398. 
  36. ^ Cronan, D (2004). "Poetic Words, Conservatism, and the Dating of Old English Poetry". Anglo-Saxon England 33. pp. 23–50. 
  37. ^ Fulk, R.D. (1992), A History of Old English Meter 
  38. ^ Neidorf, Leonard; Pascual, Rafael (2014). "The Language of Beowulf and the Conditioning of Kaluza’s Law". Neophilologus 98 (4). pp. 657–673. doi:10.1007/s11061-014-9400-x. 
  39. ^ Fulk, R.D. (2007). "Old English Meter and Oral Tradition: Three Issues Bearing on Poetic Chronology". Journal of English and Germanic Philology 106. pp. 304–324. 
  40. ^ Weiskott, Eric (2013). "Phantom Syllables in the English Alliterative Tradition". Modern Philology 110 (4). pp. 441–58. doi:10.1086/669478. 
  41. ^ Hutcheson, B.R. (2004), "Kaluza's Law, The Dating of "Beowulf," and the Old English Poetic Tradition", The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 103 (3): 299 
  42. ^ "Cotton MS Vitellius A XV". British Library. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  43. ^ Kiernan, Kevin (16 January 2014). "Electronic Beowulf 3.0". U of Kentucky. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  44. ^ Joy, Eileen A. (2005). "Thomas Smith, Humfrey Wanley, and the 'Little-Known Country' of the Cotton Library" (PDF). Electronic British Library Journal: 2. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  45. ^ Joy 2005, p. 24.
  46. ^ Kiernan 1996, p. 73-74.
  47. ^ Leonard Neidorf (2013). "Scribal errors of proper names in the Beowulf manuscript". Anglo-Saxon England 42. pp. 249–69. doi:10.1017/s0263675113000124. 
  48. ^ Lapidge, Michael (1996). Anglo-Latin literature, 600–899. London: Hambledon Press. p. 299. ISBN 1-85285-011-6. 
  49. ^ Tinker, Chauncey Brewster (1903), The Translations of Beowulf, Gutenberg 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g Osborn, Marijane. "Annotated List of Beowulf Translations". Archived from the original on 21 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  51. ^ Beowulf (in Old English), Fordham  CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  52. ^ Bloomfield, Josephine (June 1999). "Benevolent Authoritarianism in Klaeber's Beowulf: An Editorial Translation of Kingship" (PDF). Modern Language Quarterly 60 (2). 
  53. ^ Orchard 2003a, pp. 4, 329–30.
  54. ^ Schulman & Szarmach 2012, p. 4.
  55. ^ Chickering 2002.
  56. ^ Schulman & Szarmach 2012, pp. 9–10.
  57. ^ Aaij 2013, p. .
  58. ^ Sims, Harley J. (2012). "Rev. of Fulk, Beowulf". The Heroic Age 15
  59. ^ Flood, Alison (17 March 2014). "JRR Tolkien translation of Beowulf to be published after 90-year wait". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  60. ^ Acocella, Joan (2 June 2014). "Slaying Monsters: Tolkien's 'Beowulf'". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  61. ^ Blackburn, FA (1897), "The Christian Coloring of Beowulf", PMLA 12: 210–17, doi:10.2307/456133 
  62. ^ Benson, Larry D (1967), Creed, RP, ed., Old English Poetry: fifteen essays, Providence, RI: Brown University Press, pp. 193–213 
  63. ^ Lord 1960, p. 198.
  64. ^ a b Zumthor 1984, pp. 67–92.
  65. ^ Crowne, DK (1960), "The Hero on the Beach: An Example of Composition by Theme in Anglo-Saxon Poetry", Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 61 
  66. ^ Benson, Larry D (1966), "The Literary Character of Anglo-Saxon Formulaic Poetry", Publications of the Modern Language Association 81: 334–41, doi:10.2307/460821 
  67. ^ Benson, Larry (1970), "The Originality of Beowulf", The Interpretation of Narrative, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 1–44 
  68. ^ a b c Foley, John M. Oral-Formulaic Theory and Research: An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1985. p. 126
  69. ^ Watts, Ann C. (1969), The Lyre and the Harp: A Comparative Reconsideration of Oral Tradition in Homer and Old English Epic Poetry, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, p. 124, ISBN 0-300-00797-3 
  70. ^ Gardner, Thomas. "How Free Was the Beowulf Poet?" Modern Philology. 1973. p. 111–27.
  71. ^ Foley, John Miles (1991), The Theory of Oral Composition: History and Methodology, Bloomington: IUP, pp. 109f 
  72. ^ Bäuml, Franz H. "Varieties and Consequences of Medieval Literacy and Illiteracy", Speculum, Vol. 55, No. 2 (1980), pp. 243–44.
  73. ^ Havelock, Eric Alfred (1963), A History of the Greek Mind, 1. Preface to Plato, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press 
  74. ^ Curschmann, Michael (1977), "The Concept of the Formula as an Impediment to Our Understanding of Medieval Oral Poetry", Medievalia et Humanistica 8: 63–76 
  75. ^ Schaefer, Ursula (1992), "Vokalitat: Altenglische Dichtung zwischen Mundlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit", ScriptOralia (in German) (Tübingen: Gunter Narr) 39 
  76. ^ Otter, Monika. "Vokalitaet: Altenglische Dichtung zwischen Muendlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit" (in German) (9404). Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i Andersson, Theodore M. "Sources and Analogues." A Beowulf Handbook. Eds. Bjork, Robert E. and John D. Niles. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. 125–48. Print.
  78. ^ Cook 1926.
  79. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, V.24 
  80. ^ Haber, Tom Burns (1931), A Comparative Study of the Beowulf and the Aeneid, Princeton 
  81. ^ a b Irving, Edward B., Jr. "Christian and Pagan Elements." A Beowulf Handbook. Eds. Bjork, Robert E. and John D. Niles. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. 175–92. Print.
  82. ^ Girvan, Ritchie (1971), Beowulf and the Seventh Century Language and Content (print), New Feller Lane: London EC4: Methuen & Co 
  83. ^ Abrams & Greenblatt 2006, pp. 29–33.
  84. ^ Tolkien 1958, p. 127.
  85. ^ Orchard 2003a, p. 7.
  86. ^ Tolkien 2006, p. 7.
  87. ^ Tolkien 1958, p. 127.
  88. ^ Leyerle, John (1991). "The Interlace Structure of Beowulf". In Robert Dennis, Fulk. Interpretations of Beowulf: A Critical Anthology. Indiana UP. pp. 146–67. ISBN 978-0-253-20639-8. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  89. ^ Greenfield 1989, p. 59.
  90. ^ Greenfield 1989, p. 61.
  91. ^ North 2006, p. 195.
  92. ^ Williams, David (1982), Cain and Beowulf: A Study in Secular Allegory, University of Toronto Press 
  93. ^ Yeager, Robert F. "Why Read Beowulf?". National Endowment For The Humanities. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  94. ^ a b Tuso, F Joseph (1975), Beowulf: The Donaldson Translation Backgrounds and Sources Criticism, New York: Norton & Co 

Bibliography

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  • Carruthers, Leo. "Rewriting Genres: Beowulf as Epic Romance", in Palimpsests and the Literary Imagination of Medieval England, eds. Leo Carruthers, Raeleen Chai-Elsholz, Tatjana Silec. New York: Palgrave, 2011. 139–55.
  • Chadwick, Nora K. "The Monsters and Beowulf." The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in Some Aspects of Their History. Ed. Peter ed Clemoes. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959. 171–203.
  • Chance, Jane (1990), "The Structural Unity of Beowulf: The Problem of Grendel's Mother", in Damico, Helen; Olsen, Alexandra Hennessey, New Readings on Women in Old English Literature, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 248–61 .
  • Chickering, Howell D. (2002), "Beowulf and 'Heaneywulf': review", The Kenyon Review, new 24 (1): 160–78 . Reprinted in .[1]
  • Cook, Albert Stanburrough (1926), Beowulfian and Odyssean Voyages, New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 
  • Creed, Robert P, Reconstructing the Rhythm of Beowulf .
  • Damico, Helen (1984), Beowulf's Wealhtheow and the Valkyrie Tradition, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press .
  • Drout, Michael DC. Beowulf and the Critics.
  • Greenfield, Stanley (1989), Hero and Exile, London: Hambleton Press .
  • "Anthropological and Cultural Approaches to Beowulf", The Heroic Age (5), Summer–Autumn 2001 .
  • Kiernan, Kevin (1996), Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, ISBN 0-472-08412-7 .
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  • Lord, Albert (1960), The Singer of Tales, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press .
  • Mitchell, Bruce; Robinson, Fred C (1998), Beowulf: an edition with relevant shorter texts, Oxford, UK: Malden, MA: Blackwell .
  • Neidorf, Leonard, ed. (2014), The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment, Cambridge: DS Brewer, ISBN 978-1-84384387-0 .
  • Nicholson, Lewis E, ed. (1963), An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, ISBN 0-268-00006-9 .
  • North, Richard (2006), "The King's Soul: Danish Mythology in Beowulf", Origins of Beowulf: From Vergil to Wiglaf, Oxford: Oxford University Press .
  • Orchard, Andy (2003a), A Critical Companion to Beowulf, Cambridge: DS Brewer 
  • ——— (2003b), Pride and Prodigies: Studies in the Monsters of the Beowulf-Manuscript, Toronto: University of Toronto Press 
  • Robinson, Fred C (2001), The Cambridge Companion to Beowulf, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 143 
  • Schulman, Jana K; Szarmach, Paul E (2012), "Introduction", in Schulman, Jana K; Szarmach, Paul E, Beowulf and Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, pp. 1–11, ISBN 978-1-58044-152-0 .
  • Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (2006) [1958]. Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics and other essays. London: Harper Collins. 
  • Trask, Richard M (1998), "Preface to the Poems: Beowulf and Judith: Epic Companions", Beowulf and Judith: Two Heroes, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, pp. 11–14 .
  • Zumthor, Paul (1984), Englehardt, Marilyn C transl, "The Text and the Voice", New Literary History 16 .

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