All the President's Men

Introduction

All the President's Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, two of the journalists investigating the first Watergate break-in and ensuing scandal for The Washington Post. The book chronicles the investigative reporting of Woodward and Bernstein from Woodward's initial report on the Watergate break-in through the resignations of H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, and the revelation of the Nixon tapes by Alexander Butterfield in 1973. It relates the events behind the major stories the duo wrote for the Post, naming some sources who had previously refused to be identified for their initial articles, notably Hugh Sloan. It also gives detailed accounts of Woodward's secret meetings with his source Deep Throat whose identity was kept hidden for over 30 years.[1] Gene Roberts, the former executive editor of The Philadelphia Inquirer and former managing editor of The New York Times, has called the work of Woodward and Bernstein "maybe the single greatest reporting effort of all time."[2]

A film adaptation, produced by Robert Redford and starring Redford and Dustin Hoffman as Woodward and Bernstein, respectively, was released in 1976. That same year, a sequel to the book, The Final Days, was published, which chronicled the last months of Nixon's presidency, starting around the time that their previous book ended.

Background

Woodward and Bernstein had considered the idea of writing a book about Watergate, but did not commit until actor Robert Redford expressed interest in purchasing the film rights. In Telling the Truth About Lies: The Making of "All the President's Men", Woodward noted that Redford played an important role in changing the book's narrative from a story about the Watergate events to one about their investigations and reportage of the story.[3]

The name of the book alludes to the nursery rhyme about Humpty Dumpty ("All the king's horses and all the king's men / Couldn't put Humpty together again"). An allusion similar to that was made more explicitly a quarter-century earlier in the Robert Penn Warren novel All the King's Men, which describes the career of a fictional corrupt governor, loosely based on Huey Long.

Cast of characters

The President

  • Richard Nixon

The President's Men

(listed with their 1972 positions in either the president's executive staff or in his re-election committee, where applicable)

White House

  • Alexander P. Butterfield, Deputy Assistant to the President
  • Dwight L. Chapin, Deputy Assistant to the President
  • Ken W. Clawson, Deputy Director of Communications for the President
  • Charles W. Colson, Chief Counsel for the President
  • John W. Dean III, White House Counsel
  • John D. Ehrlichman, Counsel and Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs
  • H.R. Haldeman, White House Chief of Staff
  • E. Howard Hunt, Jr., President's Special Investigations Unit ("White House Plumbers")
  • Henry A. Kissinger, National Security Advisor
  • Egil Krogh, Jr., head of the President's Special Investigations Unit ("White House Plumbers")
  • Gerald Warren, White House Press Secretary, succeeding Ziegler
  • David R. Young, special assistant at the National Security Council
  • Ronald L. Ziegler, White House Press Secretary

Committee to Re-elect the President (CRP)

  • Kenneth H. Dahlberg, CRP's Midwest finance chairman
  • Herbert W. Kalmbach, personal attorney to United States President Richard Nixon and Deputy Finance Chairman of CRP
  • G. Gordon Liddy, CRP employee
  • Clark MacGregor, CRP Chairman
  • Jeb Stuart Magruder, Deputy Director, and assistant to the Director of CRP
  • Robert C. Mardian, CRP political coordinator
  • John N. Mitchell, Attorney General, and CRP campaign director
  • Robert C. Odle, Jr., Director of Administration ("office manager") for CRP
  • Kenneth W. Parkinson, CRP counsel
  • Herbert L. Porter, CRP organizer and former White House aide[4]
  • Donald H. Segretti, political operative for CRP
  • Hugh W. Sloan, Jr., CRP treasurer
  • Judy Hoback Miller, CRP bookkeeper
  • Maurice H. Stans, CRP finance chairman
  • Gordon C. Strachan, staff assistant to Herbert G. Klein but was assigned to be H.R. Haldeman's liaison to CRP

Rest of the President's Men

  • Alfred C. Baldwin III
  • John J. Caulfield
  • L. Patrick Gray III, acting Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Richard G. Kleindienst, Attorney General (succeeding John Mitchell)
  • Fred LaRue, no rank, title, salary or even listing in the White House directory
  • Powell Moore
  • Kenneth Rietz
  • DeVan L. Shumway

The Burglars

  • Bernard L. Barker
  • Virgilio R. Gonzalez
  • Eugenio R. Martinez
  • James W. McCord, Jr.
  • Frank A. Sturgis

The Prosecutors

  • Henry E. Petersen, United States Assistant Attorney General
  • Earl J. Silbert, United States Attorney for the District of Columbia
  • Donald E. Campbell, Assistant U.S. Attorney[5]
  • Seymour Glanzer, Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Columbia

The Judge

  • John J. Sirica, District Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia

The Washington Post

  • Carl Bernstein, Reporter
  • Bob Woodward, Reporter
  • Benjamin C. Bradlee, Executive Editor
  • Katharine Graham, Publisher
  • Harry M. Rosenfeld, Metropolitan Editor
  • Howard Simons, Managing Editor
  • Barry Sussman, City Desk Editor
  • Brett Gurganious, Local News Reporter

The Senator

  • Sam Ervin (D-NC), chair of the Senate Watergate Committee

The Informant

  • Deep Throat (now known to be W. Mark Felt)[1]
Publication

Dick Snyder of Simon & Schuster purchased the right to publish the book through the agent David Obst. The authors received an advance of $55,000.[6] In his memoir, Michael Korda said of the book's publication that it "transformed book publishing into a red-hot part of media" and books became "news" instead of history.

Because the book was embargoed until publication day, there were no advance copies for reviewers. Simon & Schuster became known as the "Watergate" publisher by following up All the President's Men with books by John Dean, Maureen Dean, John Ehrlichman and John Mitchell.[7]

References
  1. ^ a b In 2005 Deep Throat was revealed to be then-FBI Associate Director W. Mark Felt.
  2. ^ Roy J. Harris, Jr., Pulitzer's Gold, 2007, p. 233, Columbia: University of Missouri Press, ISBN 978-0-8262-1768-4.
  3. ^ Telling the Truth about Lies: the Making of 'All the President's Men'from Internet Movie Database
  4. ^ The Senate Watergate Report: The Historic Ervin Committee Report, Which Initiated the Fall of a President from Google Books
  5. ^ David Rosenbaum (June 30, 1973). "PROSECUTORS QUIT WATERGATE CASE". NYT. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  6. ^ Cohen, Roger (1991-06-30). "Profits - Dick Snyder's Ugly Word". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  7. ^ Korda, Michael (1997). Another Life: A Memoir of Other People. United States of America: Random House. pp. 364–367. ISBN 0679-456597. 
External links
  • The Woodward and Bernstein Watergate Papers, an exhibition at the University of Texas at Austin
  • 40 years later retrospective joint interview on CBS

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