A Theory of Justice is a work that was published in 1971 and was written by John Rawls. Rawls is a moral and political philosopher who has won many awards, held many prestigious positions, and made democracy be seen in a much better light. Accordingly with his profession, A Theory of Justice is highly philosophical and deals intensely with politics and ethics, specifically trying to solve how to distribute the goods of a society in a just way (not necessarily equal like socialism). He also incorporates the social contract in his theory which is named “justice as fairness.”
In short, this theory says that society should give members a large amount of freedom, as long as those liberties of one do not interfere with those of another. In addition, the unequal distribution of resources is only allowable when those living in the worst conditions are still better off than if all the resources were distributed equally. If an unequal distribution that is beneficial exists, then those with less resources should not be restricted from positions of power. In a well ordered society, liberty and equality must be reconciled in a principled and ethical way, which Rawls tries to describe in A Theory of Justice.