The Ballot or the Bullet

References

Notes

  1. ^ Malcolm X gave a very similar speech on April 12, 1964, at King Solomon Baptist Church in Detroit, Michigan. Recordings and transcriptions of both speeches are widely available.[2]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 23.
  2. ^ Marable, pp. 302–307
  3. ^ Wolff, Barbara (December 15, 1999). "'I Have a Dream' leads top 100 speeches of the century". University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved April 17, 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}
  4. ^ "Top 100 American speeches of the 20th century". University of Wisconsin-Madison. December 15, 1999. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  5. ^ a b Perry, p. 249.
  6. ^ a b Natambu, p. 260.
  7. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 20.
  8. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 24.
  9. ^ a b c Malcolm X Speaks, p. 25.
  10. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 28.
  11. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 26.
  12. ^ a b c d Malcolm X Speaks, p. 38.
  13. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 31.
  14. ^ a b Malcolm X Speaks, p. 33.
  15. ^ a b c Malcolm X Speaks, p. 35.
  16. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 34.
  17. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 38–39.
  18. ^ a b Malcolm X Speaks, p. 39.
  19. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 40.
  20. ^ Cone, pp. 195–196. At his press conference, Malcolm X said that "in areas where our people are the constant victims of brutality, and the government seems unable or unwilling to protect them, we should form rifle clubs that can be used to defend our lives and our property in times of emergency". Malcolm X Speaks, p. 22.
  21. ^ a b Malcolm X Speaks, p. 43.
  22. ^ Malcolm X Speaks, p. 30.
  23. ^ a b Malcolm X Speaks, p. 44.
  24. ^ Cone, p. 194.
  25. ^ Cone, pp. 194–195.
  26. ^ Natambu, pp. 302–303.
  27. ^ Illo, John (Spring 1966). "The Rhetoric of Malcolm X". Columbia University Forum. 9 (2): 5–12. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  28. ^ Condit, Celeste Michelle; Lucaites, John Louis (March 1993). "Malcolm X and the Limits of the Rhetoric of Revolutionary Dissent". Journal of Black Studies. 23 (3): 291–313. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1032.9219. doi:10.1177/002193479302300301. JSTOR 2784569.
  29. ^ Terrill, Robert E. (Spring 2001). "Protest, Prophecy, and Prudence in the Rhetoric of Malcolm X". Rhetoric and Public Affairs. 4 (1): 38. doi:10.1353/rap.2001.0016. JSTOR 41939649.
  30. ^ Terrill. "Protest, Prophecy, and Prudence in the Rhetoric of Malcolm X": 40. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Sources cited

.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
  • Cone, James H. (1991). Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or a Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. ISBN 978-0-88344-721-5.
  • Malcolm X (1990) [1965]. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. ISBN 978-0-8021-3213-0.
  • Marable, Manning (2011). Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-02220-5.
  • Natambu, Kofi (2002). The Life and Work of Malcolm X. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. ISBN 978-0-02-864218-5.
  • Perry, Bruce (1991). Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill. ISBN 978-0-88268-103-0.

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