## General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life (5th Edition)

a. Adding some reactant will shift the equilibrium in the direction of products, decreasing the concentration of $NH_3$. b. Since the heat is on the products side of the reaction, when the temperature increases, the equilibrium shifts in the direction of reactants, increasing the concentration of $NH_3$. c. The reactants side has a total of 9 moles of gas, and the products side has 10 moles of gas. Therefore, increasing the volume of the container shifts the equilibrium in the direction of products, decreasing the concentration of $NH_3$. d. Adding some product will shift the equilibrium in the direction of reactants, increasing the concentration of $NH_3$. e. Removing some product will shift the equilibrium in the direction of products, decreasing the concentration of $NH_3$.