Human Anatomy & Physiology (9th Edition)

Published by Pearson
ISBN 10: 0321743261
ISBN 13: 978-0-32174-326-8

Chapter 17 - Blood - Review Questions: 23b

Answer

A transfusion reaction occurs when an incompatible trans- fusion is given. If packed cells or whole blood from a Type B blood group person (ABO blood groups) is transfused into a recipient with Type A blood. This would result in a hemolytic transfusion reaction. The anti-B agglutinins in the recipient's plasma would clump the red blood cells of the donor. The clumped cells would interfere with blood flow, and later they would break up and spill hemoglobin into the plasma. Some consequences of this type of acute hemolytic anemia are kidney failure, lung damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Work Step by Step

Transfusion reactions take place when incompatible transfusions are given. This occurs when donor blood and recipient blood are not carefully typed and cross-matched. An acute hemolytic reaction may develop within 20 minutes after the start of a transfusion. Early signs of trouble during and after the transfusion include, urticaria, dyspnea, chills, light-headedness, nausea, abdominal pain, and falling blood pressure. The later, more serious consequences of an hemolytic reaction are kidney failure, jaundice, hematuria, lung damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Allergic reactions and delayed hemolytic reactions can also develop as a consequence of an incompatible transfusion. Apart from typing and cross-matching blood, the most important cause incompatible transfusions is failure to identify the correct prospective recipient of the transfusion. Erthroblastosis may occur in an Rh+ve baby of an Rh-ve mother who previously had an Rh+ve baby. Serious signs and symptoms of this hemolytic disease of the newborn are anemia, jaundice, brain damage, and heart failure; The other human blood groups, Kell, Duffy, MNS are not known to cause serious transfusion reactions.
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