Human Anatomy & Physiology (9th Edition)

Published by Pearson
ISBN 10: 0321743261
ISBN 13: 978-0-32174-326-8

Chapter 14 - The Autonomic Nervous System - Review Questions - Page 542: 8


The effects of sympathetic stimulation on organs and structures are mainly positive; however, there are exceptions. On the other hand in many cases parasympathetic stimulation of these same structures usually produces effects opposite to those produced by sympathetic impulses. Sympathetic stimulation causes copious secretion of sweat glands; dilation of eye pupils; secretion of catecholamine neurotransmitters from the adrenal medulla; increase in heart rate and force of heartbeat ; dilation of bronchioles of lungs ; dilation of blood vessels of vigorously exercised skeletal muscles, and secretion of thick viscous secretion from salivary glands. It should be noted , however that sympathetic stimulation of GI viscera causes the following negative or inhibitory results: constriction of blood vessels and inhibition of glandular secretory activity.

Work Step by Step

Chap 14 Review queation #8 Effects of sympatheic (ANS) activation of indicated organs/structures: 1. Sweat glands; causes copious sweating 2. Eye pupil: causes dilation of pupil 3. Adrenal medulla: causes secretion of epinephrine or norepinephrine 4. Heart : causes increase in heart rate and force of heartbeat 5. Lungs: causes dilation of bronchioles 6. Liver: causes release of glucose to the blood stream 7. Skeletal muscle blood vessels : causes dilation of blood vessels of exercised muscles 8. Blood vessels of GI viscera : constricts blood vessels and inhibits glandular secretion. 9.Salivary glands: stimulates secretion of thick viscous saliva.
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