The play was adapted into an 1924 Austrian silent film Spring Awakening directed by Luise Fleck and Jacob Fleck, and a 1929 Czech-German silent film Spring Awakening directed by Richard Oswald.
National Book Award-winning novelist Jonathan Franzen published an updated translation of the play in 2007. English playwright Anya Reiss wrote an adaptation which the Headlong theatre company took on a tour of Britain in the spring of 2014.
A musical adaptation of the play opened off-Broadway in 2006 and subsequently moved to Broadway, where it garnered eight Tony Awards, including Best Musical. It was revived in 2014 by Deaf West Theatre, which transferred to Broadway in 2015. This production included deaf and hearing actors and performed the musical in both American Sign Language and English, incorporating the 19th-century-appropriate aspects of oralism in deaf education to complement the themes of miscommunication, lack of proper sex education, and denial of voice.
The play was adapted for television as The Awakening of Spring in 2008, under the direction of Arthur Allan Seidelman. It starred Jesse Lee Soffer, Javier Picayo, and Carrie Wiita.
The play was also adapted in 2010 by Irish playwright, Thomas Kilroy, who set the play in Ireland in the late 1940s/early 1950s. This adaptation was called Christ Deliver Us! and played at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin.
In 2018, the show Rise involves a high school performing the musical of Spring Awakening, which stirs controversy and gets the students into trouble, echoing the play's themes. The show was loosely based on the nonfiction book Drama High, which detailed the career of high school teacher Lou Volpe who was given permission to try out a school version of the musical.