There are several references to snakes in this chapter as well as a reference to two brothers—the ancestors of the saved and the damned races that inhabit Grendel's world. What are the connotative effects of these references?


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Grendel is a descendant of Cain (you know, original sin) which connects to the whole snake motif in the Old Testament. This gives Grendel a very Biblical identity, an identity on the wrong side of God.