Beowulf

References

Notes

  1. ^ "wíg" means "fight, battle, war, conflict"[17] and "láf" means "remnant, left-over"[18]
  2. ^ That is, R.D. Fulk's 1992 A History of Old English Meter.
  3. ^ For instance, by Chauncey Brewster Tinker in The Translations of Beowulf,[68] a comprehensive survey of 19th-century translations and editions of Beowulf.
  4. ^ Ecclesiastical or biblical influences are only seen as adding "Christian color", in Andersson's survey. Old English sources hinges on the hypothesis that Genesis A predates Beowulf.
  5. ^ Ludwig Laistner (1889), II, p. 25; Stopford Brooke, I, p. 120; Albert S. Cook (1899) pp. 154–156.
  6. ^ In the interim, Max Deutschbein (1909) is credited by Andersson to be the first person to present the Irish argument in academic form. He suggested the Irish Feast of Bricriu (which is not a folktale) as a source for Beowulf—a theory that was soon denied by Oscar Olson.[86]
  7. ^ von Sydow was also anticipated by Heinz Dehmer in the 1920s as well besides the writers from the 19th century in pointing out "The Hand and the Child" as a parallel.[97]
  8. ^ Carney also sees the Táin Bó Fráech story (where a half-fairy hero fights a dragon in the "Black Pool (Dubh linn)"), but this has not received much support for forty years, as of Andersson's writing.

Citations

  1. ^ Hanna, Ralph (2013). Introducing English Medieval Book History: Manuscripts, their Producers and their Readers. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 9780859898713. Retrieved 6 October 2017. 
  2. ^ "Beowulf". Collins English Dictionary.
  3. ^ Chase, Colin. (1997). The dating of Beowulf. pp. 9–22. University of Toronto Press
  4. ^ Robinson 2001, ?: 'The name of the author who assembled from tradition the materials of his story and put them in their final form is not known to us.'
  5. ^ Robinson 2001: 'Like most Old English stories, Beowulf has no title in the unique manuscript in which it survives (British Library, Cotton Vitellius A.xv, which was copied round the year 1000 AD), but modern scholars agree in naming it after the hero whose life is its subject'.
  6. ^ Mitchell & Robinson 1998, p. 6.
  7. ^ Greenblatt, Stephen; Simpson, James; David, Alfred, eds. (2012). The Norton Anthology of English Literature (Ninth ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 36–39. ISBN 9780393912494. 
  8. ^ Beowulf (dual-language ed.). New York: Doubleday. 1977. 
  9. ^ Newton, Sam (1993). The Origins of Beowulf and the Pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia. Woodbridge, Suffolk, ENG: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-0-85991-361-4. 
  10. ^ Waugh, Robin (1997). "Literacy, Royal Power, and King-Poet Relations in Old English and Old Norse Compositions". Comparative Literature. 49 (4): 289–315. doi:10.2307/1771534. JSTOR 1771534. 
  11. ^ a b Nerman, Birger (1925). Det svenska rikets uppkomst. Stockholm. 
  12. ^ Noted, for example, by John Grigsby, Beowulf & Grendel 2005:12.
  13. ^ Shippey, TA (Summer 2001). "Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulf and Elsewhere, Notes and Bibliography". In the Heroic Age (5). 
  14. ^ a b Niles, John D. (October 2006). "Beowulf's Great Hall". History Today. 56 (10): 40–44. 
  15. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). "Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia" (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English). p. 115. Retrieved 1 October 2007. 
  16. ^ Klingmark, Elisabeth. Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59 (in Swedish). Riksantikvarieämbetet. 
  17. ^ "Wíg". Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "Láf". Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  19. ^ Beowulf, 87–98
  20. ^ Beowulf, 199–203
  21. ^ Beowulf, 675–687
  22. ^ Beowulf, 757–765
  23. ^ Beowulf, 766–789
  24. ^ Beowulf, 793–804
  25. ^ Beowulf, 808–823
  26. ^ Simpson, James (2012). The Norton Anthology of English Literature vol. A. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 58. 
  27. ^ Simpson, James (2012). The Norton Anthology of English Literature vol. A. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 70. 
  28. ^ Hansen, E. T. (2008). "Hrothgar's 'sermon' in Beowulf as parental wisdom". Anglo-Saxon England. 10. doi:10.1017/S0263675100003203. 
  29. ^ Beowulf (PDF), SA: MU .
  30. ^ S. Downey (February 2015), "Review of The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment", Choice Reviews Online, 52 (6): 52–2954, doi:10.5860/CHOICE.187152 
  31. ^ a b Neidorf, Leonard, ed. (2014), The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment, Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, ISBN 978-1-84384-387-0 
  32. ^ Lord, Albert (2000). The Singer of Tales, Volume 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 200. ISBN 9780674002838. 
  33. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1997). Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics. Gale. 
  34. ^ Shippey, Tom (2007), "Tolkien and the Beowulf-poet", Roots and Branches, Walking Tree Publishers, ISBN 978-3-905703-05-4 
  35. ^ a b Neidorf, Leonard; Pascual, Rafael (2014). "The Language of Beowulf and the Conditioning of Kaluza's Law". Neophilologus. 98 (4). pp. 657–73. doi:10.1007/s11061-014-9400-x. 
  36. ^ a b Fulk, R.D. (2007). "Old English Meter and Oral Tradition: Three Issues Bearing on Poetic Chronology". Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 106. pp. 304–24. JSTOR 27712658. 
  37. ^ Lapidge, M. (2000). "The Archetype of Beowulf". Anglo-Saxon England. 29. pp. 5–41. doi:10.1017/s0263675100002398. 
  38. ^ Cronan, D (2004). "Poetic Words, Conservatism, and the Dating of Old English Poetry". Anglo-Saxon England. 33. pp. 23–50. 
  39. ^ Fulk, R.D. (1992), A History of Old English Meter 
  40. ^ Weiskott, Eric (2013). "Phantom Syllables in the English Alliterative Tradition". Modern Philology. 110 (4). pp. 441–58. doi:10.1086/669478. 
  41. ^ Hutcheson, B.R. (2004), "Kaluza's Law, The Dating of "Beowulf," and the Old English Poetic Tradition", The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 103 (3): 299, JSTOR 27712433 
  42. ^ "Cotton MS Vitellius A XV". British Library. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
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  45. ^ Joy 2005, p. 2.
  46. ^ Joy 2005, p. 24.
  47. ^ Kiernan 1996, pp. 73–74.
  48. ^ Kiernan, Kevin (16 January 2014). "Electronic Beowulf 3.0". U of Kentucky. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
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  50. ^ Leonard Neidorf (2013). "Scribal errors of proper names in the Beowulf manuscript". Anglo-Saxon England. 42. pp. 249–69. doi:10.1017/s0263675113000124. 
  51. ^ Lapidge, Michael (1996). Anglo-Latin literature, 600–899. London: Hambledon Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-85285-011-1. 
  52. ^ Blackburn, FA (1897), "The Christian Coloring of Beowulf", PMLA, 12 (2): 210–17, doi:10.2307/456133, JSTOR 456133 
  53. ^ Benson, Larry D (1967), Creed, RP, ed., "The Pagan Coloring of Beowulf", Old English Poetry: fifteen essays, Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Press, pp. 193–213 
  54. ^ Lord 1960, p. 198.
  55. ^ a b Zumthor 1984, pp. 67–92.
  56. ^ Crowne, DK (1960), "The Hero on the Beach: An Example of Composition by Theme in Anglo-Saxon Poetry", Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 61 
  57. ^ Benson, Larry D (1966), "The Literary Character of Anglo-Saxon Formulaic Poetry", Publications of the Modern Language Association, 81 (5): 334–41, doi:10.2307/460821, JSTOR 460821 
  58. ^ Benson, Larry (1970), "The Originality of Beowulf", The Interpretation of Narrative, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 1–44 
  59. ^ a b c Foley, John M. Oral-Formulaic Theory and Research: An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1985. p. 126
  60. ^ Watts, Ann C. (1969), The Lyre and the Harp: A Comparative Reconsideration of Oral Tradition in Homer and Old English Epic Poetry, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, p. 124, ISBN 978-0-300-00797-8 
  61. ^ Gardner, Thomas. "How Free Was the Beowulf Poet?" Modern Philology. 1973. pp. 111–27.
  62. ^ Foley, John Miles (1991), The Theory of Oral Composition: History and Methodology, Bloomington: IUP, pp. 109ff 
  63. ^ Bäuml, Franz H. "Varieties and Consequences of Medieval Literacy and Illiteracy", Speculum, Vol. 55, No. 2 (1980), pp. 243–44.
  64. ^ Havelock, Eric Alfred (1963), A History of the Greek Mind, 1. Preface to Plato, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press 
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  66. ^ Schaefer, Ursula (1992), "Vokalitat: Altenglische Dichtung zwischen Mundlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit", ScriptOralia (in German), Tübingen, 39 
  67. ^ Otter, Monika. "Vokalitaet: Altenglische Dichtung zwischen Muendlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit". Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  68. ^ Tinker, Chauncey Brewster (1903), The Translations of Beowulf, Gutenberg 
  69. ^ Orchard 2003a, pp. 4, 329–30.
  70. ^ Osborn, Marijane (2003). "Annotated List of Beowulf Translations: Introduction". Arizona Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies
  71. ^ Schulman & Szarmach 2012, p. 4.
  72. ^ a b c d e f g Osborn, Marijane. "Annotated List of Beowulf Translations". Archived from the original on 21 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  73. ^ Jaillant (2013)
  74. ^ Beowulf (in Old English), Fordham 
  75. ^ Bloomfield, Josephine (June 1999). "Benevolent Authoritarianism in Klaeber's Beowulf: An Editorial Translation of Kingship" (PDF). Modern Language Quarterly. 60 (2). 
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  77. ^ Chickering 2002.
  78. ^ Sims, Harley J. (2012). "Rev. of Fulk, Beowulf". The Heroic Age. 15
  79. ^ Geremia, Silvia (2007). "A Contemporary Voice Revisits the past: Seamus Heaney's Beowulf". Journal of Irish Studies (2): 57. 
  80. ^ Flood, Alison (17 March 2014). "JRR Tolkien translation of Beowulf to be published after 90-year wait". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  81. ^ Acocella, Joan (2 June 2014). "Slaying Monsters: Tolkien's 'Beowulf'". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  82. ^ Kay, Jennifer (16 July 2018). "Review: 'The Mere Wife' explores 'Beowulf' in the suburbs". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 July 2018. 
  83. ^ Andersson 1998, pp. 125, 129.
  84. ^ Andersson 1998, pp. 130–131.
  85. ^ a b c d e Andersson 1998, p. 130.
  86. ^ a b c Andersson 1998, p. 135.
  87. ^ Andersson 1998, pp. 130–31.
  88. ^ Andersson 1998, p. 125.
  89. ^ Magnús Fjalldal (1998). The long arm of coincidence: the frustrated connection between Beowulf and Grettis saga. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-4301-6. 
  90. ^ Chambers 1921, p. 55.
  91. ^ Panzer 1910.
  92. ^ Andersson 1998, pp. 137, 146.
  93. ^ Andersson 1998, p. 134.
  94. ^ Andersson 1998, p. 146.
  95. ^ (Vickrey 2009, p. 209): "I shall continue to use the term Bear's Son for the folktale in question; it is established in Beowulf criticism and certainly Stitt has justified its retention".
  96. ^ a b Puhvel 1979, p. 2–3.
  97. ^ a b Andersson 1998, p. 136.
  98. ^ Andersson 1998, p. 137.
  99. ^ Cook 1926.
  100. ^ Andersson 1998, p. 138.
  101. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, V.24 
  102. ^ Haber, Tom Burns (1931), A Comparative Study of the Beowulf and the Aeneid, Princeton 
  103. ^ Andersson 1998, pp. 140–41.
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  105. ^ Andersson 1998, pp. 142–43.
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  110. ^ Tolkien 1997, p. 31.
  111. ^ Orchard 2003a, p. 7.
  112. ^ Tolkien 2006, p. 7.
  113. ^ Tolkien 1958, p. 7.
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  115. ^ North 2006, p. 195.
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  120. ^ Tuso, "Donaldson Translation," 98
  121. ^ Greenfield 1989, p. 59.
  122. ^ Greenfield 1989, p. 61.
  123. ^ a b Podgorski, Daniel (3 November 2015). "Ending Unending Feuds: The Portent of Beowulf's Historicization of Violent Conflict". The Gemsbok. Retrieved 13 February 2018. 

Sources

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