Beowulf

References

Notes

  1. ^ "wíg" means "fight, battle, war, conflict"[16] and "láf" means "remnant, left-over"[17]
  2. ^ That is, R.D. Fulk's 1992 A History of Old English Meter.
  3. ^ For instance, by Chauncey Brewster Tinker in The Translations of Beowulf,[85] a comprehensive survey of 19th-century translations and editions of Beowulf.
  4. ^ Ecclesiastical or biblical influences are only seen as adding "Christian color", in Andersson's survey. Old English sources hinges on the hypothesis that Genesis A predates Beowulf.
  5. ^ Ludwig Laistner (1889), II, p. 25; Stopford Brooke, I, p. 120; Albert S. Cook (1899) pp. 154–156.
  6. ^ In the interim, Max Deutschbein (1909) is credited by Andersson as the first person to present the Irish argument in academic form. He suggested the Irish Feast of Bricriu (not a folktale) as a source for Beowulf—a theory soon denied by Oscar Olson.[119]
  7. ^ von Sydow was anticipated by Heinz Dehmer in the 1920s, besides the 19th century authors who pointed out "The Hand and the Child" as a parallel.[130]
  8. ^ Carney also sees the Táin Bó Fráech story (where a half-fairy hero fights a dragon in the "Black Pool (Dubh linn)"), but this has received little support.

Citations

  1. ^ "Beowulf". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b Chase 1997, pp. 9–22.
  3. ^ a b Robinson 2002, p. 143.
  4. ^ Mitchell & Robinson 1998, p. 6.
  5. ^ a b Chickering, Howell D. (1977). Beowulf (dual-language ed.). New York: Doubleday.
  6. ^ a b Newton, Sam (1993). The Origins of Beowulf and the Pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-0-85991-361-4.
  7. ^ Waugh, Robin (1997). "Literacy, Royal Power, and King-Poet Relations in Old English and Old Norse Compositions". Comparative Literature. 49 (4): 289–315. doi:10.2307/1771534. JSTOR 1771534.
  8. ^ Grigsby, John (2005). Beowulf & Grendel : the truth behind England's oldest myth. Watkins. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84293-153-0. OCLC 61177107.
  9. ^ Shippey, Tom A. (Summer 2001). "Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulf and Elsewhere, Notes and Bibliography". The Heroic Age (5).
  10. ^ Carruthers, Leo M. (1998). Beowulf. Didier Erudition. p. 37. ISBN 978-2864603474.
  11. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). "Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia" (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English). p. 115. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
  12. ^ a b Nerman, Birger (1925). Det svenska rikets uppkomst [The Rise of the Swedish Realm]. Stockholm.
  13. ^ Klingmark, Elisabeth. Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59 (in Swedish). Riksantikvarieämbetet.
  14. ^ a b Niles, John D. (October 2006). "Beowulf's Great Hall". History Today. 56 (10): 40–44.
  15. ^ a b Carrigan, E. (1967). "Structure and Thematic Development in "Beowulf"". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy: Archaeology, Culture, History, Literature. 66: 1–51. JSTOR 25505137.
  16. ^ "Wíg". Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  17. ^ "Láf". Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  18. ^ Beowulf, 26–45
  19. ^ Beowulf, 3140–3170
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  21. ^ Beowulf, 199–203
  22. ^ Beowulf, 675–687
  23. ^ Beowulf, 757–765
  24. ^ Beowulf, 766–789
  25. ^ Beowulf, 793–804
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  27. ^ Simpson, James (2012). The Norton Anthology of English Literature vol. A. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 58.
  28. ^ Simpson, James (2012). The Norton Anthology of English Literature vol. A. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 70.
  29. ^ Hansen, E. T. (2008). "Hrothgar's 'sermon' in Beowulf as parental wisdom". Anglo-Saxon England. 10: 53–67. doi:10.1017/S0263675100003203.
  30. ^ Beowulf lines 2712–3182
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  33. ^ Bonjour, Adrien (1950). The Digressions in Beowulf. Basil Blackwell. pp. xv and whole book.
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  37. ^ Beowulf, 2428–2508
  38. ^ Beowulf, 2247–2266
  39. ^ Beowulf, 499–606
  40. ^ Beowulf, 874–896
  41. ^ Beowulf, 1069–1159
  42. ^ Beowulf, 2032–2066
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  63. ^ Joy 2005, p. 2.
  64. ^ Joy 2005, p. 24.
  65. ^ Kiernan 1996, pp. 73–74.
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  73. ^ Liuzza 2013, p. 119: "gomenwudu grēted, gid oft wrecen, ðonne healgamen Hrōþgāres scop æfter medobence mǣnan scolde,".
  74. ^ Blackburn, F. A. (1897). "The Christian Coloring of Beowulf". PMLA. 12 (2): 210–217. doi:10.2307/456133. JSTOR 456133.
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  90. ^ Klaeber, Frederick, ed. (1950). Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg (3rd ed.). Heath. ISBN 9780669212129.
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  93. ^ a b Magennis 2011, pp. 1–25.
  94. ^ Orchard 2003a, pp. 4, 329–30.
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  96. ^ Schulman & Szarmach 2012, p. 4.
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  98. ^ Chickering 2002.
  99. ^ McGrath, Charles (17 June 2007). "Children's Books | Young Adults: Reviews". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 January 2021. the graphic novelist Gareth Hinds has reimagined Beowulf as a kind of superhero tale ... A. J. Church's 1904 prose translation ... James Rumford's Beowulf: A Hero's Tale Retold ... An even better text is Michael Morpurgo's Beowulf ...
  100. ^ Jaillant, Lise (2013). "A Fine Old Tale of Adventure: Beowulf Told to the Children of the English Race, 1898–1908". Children's Literature Association Quarterly. 38 (4): 399–419. doi:10.1353/chq.2013.0055. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  101. ^ Liuzza 2013, pp. 51–245.
  102. ^ Liuzza 2013, pp. 1–43.
  103. ^ Sims, Harley J. (2012). "Rev. of Fulk, Beowulf". The Heroic Age. 15.
  104. ^ Magennis 2011, pp. 41ff.
  105. ^ Magennis 2011, pp. 27ff.
  106. ^ Magennis 2011, pp. 191ff.
  107. ^ Magennis 2011, pp. 81ff.
  108. ^ Magennis 2011, pp. 109ff.
  109. ^ Magennis 2011, pp. 135ff.
  110. ^ Magennis 2011, pp. 161ff.
  111. ^ Geremia, Silvia (2007). "A Contemporary Voice Revisits the past: Seamus Heaney's Beowulf". Journal of Irish Studies (2): 57.
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  127. ^ Andersson 1998, p. 146.
  128. ^ (Vickrey 2009, p. 209): "I shall continue to use the term Bear's Son for the folktale in question; it is established in Beowulf criticism and certainly Stitt has justified its retention".
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Sources

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