126 3. To defeat the Axis powers in World War II, the Allies devoted all their resources to the war effort. Governments took a greater role in the economy. For example, governments ordered factories to make tanks instead of cars. Consumer goods were rationed, and wages and prices regulated. A positive result was that the increase in production ended the Great Depression. However, governments also limited citizens' rights, censored the press, and resorted to propaganda. At the same time, women, symbolized by "Rose the Riveter," replaced men in factories. Women also played a more direct role in some military operations.
The years 1942 and 1943 marked the turning point of the war. In the Pacific, Allied forces won the battles, attacks were launched from enormous aircraft carries. In North Africa, British and American forces, led by craft carriers. In North Africa, British and American forces, led by General Dwight Eisenhower, soon-trapped Rommel's army, and he surrendered in May 1943. With North Africa under their control, the Allies crossed the Mediterranean and landed in Sicily. Allied victories in Italy led to the overthrow of Mussolini, but fighting continued in Italy for another 18 months. On the Eastern front, a key turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad. After a German advance on the city and brutal house-to-house fighting, the Soviet army encircled the German troops. Without food or ammunition, the Germans surrendered.
On June 6, 1944, the Allies launched the D-Day invasion of France. Allied troops faced many obstacles, but the Germans finally retreated. AS THE ALLIES ADVANCED, GERMANY REELED FROM INCESSANT, AROUND-THE-CLOCK BOMBING. A German counterattack, the Battle of the Bulge, resulted in terrible losses on both sides. However, with Germany's defeat seeming inevitable, the "Big Three"--Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin-met to plan for the end of the war. Key features of this Yalta Conference were the Soviet agreement to enter the war against Japan and the division of Germany into four zones of occupation. However, growing mistrust at Yalta foreshadowed a split among the Allies.
3. Who were the "Big Three'?