Alice in Wonderland

Adaptations

Cinema and television

The book has inspired numerous film and television adaptations which have multiplied as the original work is now in the public domain in all jurisdictions. The following list is of direct adaptations of Adventures in Wonderland (sometimes merging it with Through the Looking-Glass), not other sequels or works otherwise inspired by the works (such as Tim Burton's 2010 film Alice in Wonderland):

  • Alice in Wonderland (1903), a British silent film directed by Cecil Hepworth and Percy Stow, with May Clark as Alice[54]
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1910), a silent film directed by Edwin Stanton Porter
  • Alice in Wonderland (1915), a silent film directed by W. W. Young
  • Alice in Wonderland (1931), the first talkie adaptation, directed by Bud Pollard
  • Alice in Wonderland (1933), a film version directed by Norman Z. McLeod, US
  • Alice in Wonderland (1937), a TV adaptation directed by George More O'Ferrall
  • Alice in Wonderland (1937) TV adaptation again directed by George More O'ferrall with Usula Henray as Alice[55]
  • Alice in Wonderland (1944) TV adaptation of Eva La Gaillenne's stage version of both books, USA.[56]
  • Alice (1946), a BBC production starring Vivian Pickles directed by George More O'Ferrall, UK
  • Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass (1948) BBC TV broadcast.[57]
  • Alice in Wonderland (1949), a live-action/animated film with stop motion segments, directed by Dallas Bower
  • Through the Crystal Ball: Alice in Wonderland (1949) US TV performance.[58]
  • Alice in Wonderland (1950), televised on the CBS Ford Theatre, with Iris Mann as Alice, directed by Franklin J. Schaffner
  • Alice in Wonderland (1951), a film version in traditional animation from Walt Disney Animation Studios. Arguably the most well known of the Alice film adaptations, and today considered one of Disney's great classics.[59]
  • Alice au pays des Merveilles (1951) France TV broadcast of a stage version
  • Alice in Wonderland (1954) BBC broadcast of a ballet version.[60]
  • Alice in Wonderland (1955), a live television adaptation of the 1932 Eva LeGallienne /Florida Friebus stage adaptation of the novel, directed for television by George Schaefer for the Hallmark Hall of Fame
  • The Adventures of Alice (1960) Televised opera [61]
  • The BP Super Show: Alice in Wonderland (1962) Australian TV series [62]
  • Alice in Wonderland (1965), a TV movie directed by Dennis Potter
  • Alice in Wonderland (1966), an animated Hanna-Barbera TV movie with Janet Waldo as Alice
  • Alice in Wonderland (1966), a BBC television play directed by Jonathan Miller
  • Alice au pays des merveilles (1972), a version made for television, by Jean-Christophe Averty.
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972), a musical film version starring Fiona Fullerton as Alice
  • Nel Mondo Di Alice (In the World of Alice) Italian TV series in 4 parts.[63]
  • Alice in Wonderland (1976), a porn-musical by Bud Townsend
  • Alice in Wonderland (1981), a Soviet animated film by Yefrem Puzhanskiy
  • Alice in Wonderland (1983), a PBS Great Performances presentation of a 1982 stage play which was in turn a revival of the 1932 LeGallienne production
  • Alice in Wonderland (1985), a two-part made-for-TV special produced by Irwin Allen and featuring a large all-star cast
  • Alice in Wonderland (1986), a BBC adaptation directed by Barry Letts and starring Kate Dorning
  • Alice (1988 film) by Jan Švankmajer, stop motion and live action
  • Alice in Wonderland (1999), a 1999 television movie first shown on NBC and then shown on British television on Channel 4

Comic strips and books

Alice in Wonderland (1934-5) was a comic strip adaptation drawn by Edward D. Kuekes and written by Olive Ray Scott.This version also featured a "topper" strip, Knurl the Gnome. The strip was distributed by United Feature Syndicate.[64]

The book has also inspired numerous comic book adaptations:

  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Dell Comics, 1951)
  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Gold Key Comics, 1965)
  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Whitman, 1984)
  • "The Complete Alice in Wonderland" (Dynamite Entertainment, 2005)
  • Return to Wonderland (2009), Zenescope Entertainment
  • Alice in Wonderland (2011), Zenescope Entertainment

Parodies

The book has inspired several parodies including:

  • The Westminster Alice (1902) by Hector Hugh Munro (Saki), illustrated by Francis Carruthers Gould

Live performance

The first full major production of 'Alice' books during Carroll's lifetime was Alice in Wonderland, a musical play by H. Saville Clark (book) and Walter Slaughter (music), which played in 1886 at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London.

As the book and its sequel are Carroll's most widely recognised works, they have also inspired numerous live performances, including plays, operas, ballets, and traditional English pantomimes. These works range from fairly faithful adaptations to those that use the story as a basis for new works. An example of the latter is The Eighth Square, a murder mystery set in Wonderland, written by Matthew Fleming and music and lyrics by Ben J. Macpherson. This goth-toned rock musical premiered in 2006 at the New Theatre Royal in Portsmouth, England. The TA Fantastika, a popular Black light theatre in Prague performs "Aspects of Alice"; written and directed by Petr Kratochvíl. This adaptation is not faithful to the books, but rather explores Alice's journey into adulthood while incorporating allusions to the history of Czech Republic.

Over the years, many notable people in the performing arts have been involved in Alice productions. Actress Eva Le Gallienne famously adapted both Alice books for the stage in 1932; this production has been revived in New York in 1947 and 1982. One of the most well-known American productions was Joseph Papp's 1980 staging of Alice in Concert at the Public Theater in New York City. Elizabeth Swados wrote the book, lyrics, and music. Based on both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, Papp and Swados had previously produced a version of it at the New York Shakespeare Festival. Meryl Streep played Alice, the White Queen, and Humpty Dumpty. The cast also included Debbie Allen, Michael Jeter, and Mark Linn-Baker. Performed on a bare stage with the actors in modern dress, the play is a loose adaptation, with song styles ranging the globe. A community theater production of Alice was Olivia de Havilland's first foray onto the stage.

Similarly, the 1992 operatic production Alice used both Alice books as its inspiration. It also employs scenes with Charles Dodgson, a young Alice Liddell, and an adult Alice Liddell, to frame the story. Paul Schmidt wrote the play, with Tom Waits and Kathleen Brennan writing the music. Although the original production in Hamburg, Germany, received only a small audience, Tom Waits released the songs as the album Alice in 2002.

A musical adaption was written by Michael Sirotta and Heather M. Dominick in 1997, titled Alice in Wonderland, a Musical Adventure.[65][66]

A ballet by Christopher Wheeldon[67] and Nicholas Wright[68] commissioned for The Royal Ballet entitled "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" premiered in February 2011 at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, London. The ballet was based on the novel Wheeldon grew up reading as a child and is generally faithful to the original story, although some critics claimed it may have been too faithful.[69] The ballet overall stays generally light hearted for its running time of an hour and forty minutes. The ballet returned to the Royal Opera House in 2012.[70]

Works influenced

Alice and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art to this day, sometimes indirectly via the 1951 Disney movie, for example. References, homages, reworkings and derivative works can be found in many works of literature, film, theatre, visual art, music, and games. The character of the plucky, yet proper, Alice has proven immensely popular and inspired similar heroines in literature and pop culture, many also named Alice in homage.

Illustrations of the different books


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