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Njoroge, as the novel's primary protagonist, and Ngotho's youngest son represents Kenya and its future because he grabs each and every opportunity he's afforded. As the first member in his family to attend school, he aspires to use his education to make Kenya a better place. Ngugi describes him as “a dreamer, a visionary who consoled himself faced by the difficulties of the moment by a look at a better day to come” (130). The challenges to his optimism in large part constitute the novel's primary arc.