Walden Two

Real-world efforts

Many efforts to create a Walden Two in real life are detailed in Hilke Kuhlmann's Living Walden Two[17] and in Daniel W. Bjork's B.F. Skinner.[18]

Some of these efforts include:

  • 1955 In New Haven, Connecticut a group led by Arthur Gladstone tries to start a community.
  • 1966 Waldenwoods conference is held in Hartland, Michigan, comprising 83 adults and 4 children, coordinated through the Breiland list (a list of interested people who wrote to Skinner and were referred to Jim Breiland).
  • 1966 Matthew Israel forms the Association for Social Design (ASD), to promote a Walden Two,[19] which soon finds chapters in Los Angeles, Albuquerque, and Washington, D.C..
  • 1967 Israel's ASD forms the Morningside House in Arlington, Massachusetts.[20]
  • 1967 Twin Oaks Community (website) is started in Louisa County, Virginia.
  • 1969 Keith Miller in Lawrence, Kansas founds a 'Walden house' [21] student collective that becomes The Sunflower House 11.
  • 1971 Roger Ulrich starts "an experimental community named Lake Village in Kalamazoo, Michigan".[22][23]
  • 1971 Los Horcones (website) is started in Hermosillo, Mexico.
  • 1972 Sunflower House 11 is (re)born in Lawrence, Kansas from the previous experiment.
  • 1973 East Wind (website) in south central Missouri.[24]

Twin Oaks is detailed in Kat Kinkade's book, A Walden Two experiment: The first five years of Twin Oaks Community.[25] Originally started as a Walden Two community, it has since rejected its Walden Two position, however it still uses its modified Planner-Manager system as well as a system of labor credits based on the book.

Los Horcones does not use the Planner-Manager governance system described in Walden Two. They refer to their governance system as a "personocracy".[26] This system has been "developed through ongoing experimentation".[27] In contrast to Twin Oaks, Los Horcones "has remained strongly committed to an experimental science of human behavior and has described itself as the only true Walden Two community in existence."[28] In 1989, B. F. Skinner said that Los Horcones "comes closest to the idea of the 'engineered utopia' that he put forth in Walden Two".[29]


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