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When Atticus arrives and catches them all. He tells them to stop tormenting Boo, and lectures them about how Boo has a right to his privacy, and that they shouldn't go near the house unless they're invited. He accuses them of putting Boo's life history on display for the edification of the neighborhood. Jem says that he didn't say they were doing that, and thus inadvertently admits that they were doing just that. Atticus caught him with "the oldest lawyer's trick on record."
Atticus tries to encourage the children to leave Boo alone, their senses of sympathy have been summoned by thinking about Boo's solitude and his strict upbringing. Though still frightened of him, they wish to befriend him and help him now. Miss Maudie's description of Boo helps the children understand him as a victim of his upbringing.