Woof and booger boo are probably onomatopoeia.
The one with hell in it is probably metaphor comparing hell to one's life and the broom showing how one can escape.
I do not know that I would call the verbs that end in -ed anything except past tense or past participle verbs that require a helping verb. I suppose someone might call them onomatopoeia.
The muddy water has dialect in it (Ah instead of I) and it also has exaggeration (hyperbole) in that one cannot see through muddy water to see dry land and yet the reader is expected to believe that.
I would say the "thousand leg" would fit the same characteristics as the muddy water one.
It is hard to say for sure what these are until one knows what choices your teacher gives you.