The Wizard of Oz has been an inspiration for many fantasy novels and films. It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages, at times being modified in local variations. For instance, in some abridged Indian editions, the Tin Woodman was replaced with a snake. In Russia, a translation by Alexander Melentyevich Volkov produced five books, The Wizard of the Emerald City series, which became progressively distanced from the Baum version, as Ellie and her dog Totoshka travel throughout the Magic Land.
The 1939 film adaptation, a now-classic of popular culture, was shown annually on American television from 1959 to 1991, and shown several times a year every year beginning in 1999.
In 1967, The Seekers recorded "Emerald City", with lyrics about a visit there, set to the melody of Beethoven's "Ode to Joy".
In 1982, Philip José Farmer published A Barnstormer in Oz, whose main character, Hank Stover, is the son of Dorothy Gale. He finds himself transported to Oz after he flies his plane into an enormous green cloud, and finds he must resolve a civil war.
In 1992, Geoff Ryman's novel Was was published in the UK. It imagines three interwoven narratives, one of a real-life "Dorothy Gael" whose experiences are far from wonderful, a second loosely based on Judy Garland's own childhood, and a third a gay male actor who loves the 1939 film. Was was republished in 2014 by Small Beer Press.
In 1995, Gregory Maguire published Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, a revisionist look at the land and characters of Oz. Instead of depicting Dorothy, the novel focuses on Elphaba, the future Wicked Witch of the West. The Independent characterized the novel as "an adult read reflecting on the nature of being an outcast, society's pressures to conform, and the effects of oppression and fascism". Universal Pictures, which bought the novel's rights, initially intended to make it into a film. Composer and lyricist Stephen Schwartz convinced the company to make the novel into a musical instead. Schwartz wrote Wicked 's music and lyrics, and it premiered on Broadway in October 2003.
In 2014, characters Dorothy Gale and The Wicked Witch of the West made appearances in the episode "Slumber Party" from the ninth season of the television series Supernatural. The ABC/Disney series Once Upon A Time also utilizes elements of the story with Dorothy and Glinda as background characters.