The Prince


  1. ^ a b Thompson (1995)
  2. ^ Bireley (1990) page 14.
  3. ^ "Italian Vernacular Literature". Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  4. ^ Gilbert (1938) emphasizes similarities between the Prince and its forerunners, but still sees the same innovations as other commentators.
  5. ^ Bireley (1990)
  6. ^ Although Machiavelli makes many references to classical sources, these do not include the customary deference to Aristotle which was to some extent approved by the church in his time. Strauss (1958:222) says that "Machiavelli indicates his fundamental disagreement with Aristotle's doctrine of the whole by substituting "chance" (caso) for "nature" in the only context in which he speaks of "the beginning of the world." Strauss gives evidence that Machiavelli was knowingly influenced by Democritus, whose philosophy of nature was, like that of modern science, materialist.
  7. ^ Bireley (1990:241)
  8. ^ Strauss (1987:297): "Machiavelli is the only political thinker whose name has come into common use for designating a kind of politics, which exists and will continue to exist independently of his influence, a politics guided exclusively by considerations of expediency, which uses all means, fair or foul, iron or poison, for achieving its ends – its end being the aggrandizement of one's country or fatherland – but also using the fatherland in the service of the self-aggrandizement of the politician or statesman or one's party."
  9. ^ See for example de Alvarez (1999) page viii; and Strauss (1958:55)
  10. ^ Guarini (1999:30)
  11. ^ Machiavelli, "Chapter 1", The Prince,, retrieved 2010 
  12. ^ Machiavelli, "Chapter 2", The Prince,, retrieved 2010 
  13. ^ Gilbert (1938:19)
  14. ^ de Alvarez (1999) page 9.
  15. ^ Strauss (1958:293) also says: "Aristotle treats tyranny as a monstrosity whereas Machiavelli rather deals with tyranny as essential in the foundation of society itself. In this point, as well as in others of the same character, Machiavelli is closer to Plato than to Aristotle."
  16. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.1.4
  17. ^ Machiavelli, "Chapter 3", The Prince,, retrieved 2010 
  18. ^ Gilbert. Machiavelli's Prince and Its Forerunners. pg 39
  19. ^ Gilbert. Machiavelli's Prince and Its Forerunners. pg 48
  20. ^ Machiavelli, "Chapter 12", The Prince,, retrieved 2010 
  21. ^ Smith, Nicole. "Feared Versus Loved: An Analysis of "The Prince" by Machiavelli". Article Myriad. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  22. ^ Machiavelli, "Chapter 25", The Prince,, retrieved 2010 
  23. ^ As Francis Bacon wrote in his 13th essay, quoted at Strauss (1958:176), that "one of the doctors of Italy, Nicholas Machiavel, had the confidence to put in writing, almost in plain terms, That the Christian faith had given up good men in prey to those who are tyrannical and unjust".
  24. ^ Najemy (1993)
  25. ^ Dent (1995) page xvii
  26. ^ Machiavelli, "Dedication", The Prince,, retrieved 2010 
  27. ^ Fischer (2000, p. 181) says that some people "might hold Machiavelli to some extent responsible for the crimes of a Lenin, Hitler, Mao, or Pol Pot, who had learned from him to excuse the murder of innocents by its supposed benefits for humanity." Strauss (1958, p. 12) writes that "We shall not hesitate to assert, as very many have asserted before us, and we shall later on try to prove, that Machiavelli's teaching is immoral and irreligious."
  28. ^ For example Strauss (1958, p. 182): "Machiavelli's book on principalities and his book on republics are both republican."
  29. ^ Fischer (2000, p. 181)
  30. ^ Concerning being a scientist, Strauss (1958:54–55) says that this description of Machiavelli as a scientist "is defensible and even helpful provided it is properly meant" because the Prince "conveys a general teaching" and only uses specific historical facts and experience as a basis for such generalizing. On the other hand Strauss (1958, p. 11): "Machiavelli's works abound with "value-judgments". Concerning patriotism Strauss (1958:10–11) writes that "Machiavelli understood it as collective selfishness." It is Machiavelli's indifferent "comprehensive reflection" about right and wrong, which is "the core of Machiavelli's thought," not love of the fatherland as such.
  31. ^ Much of Machiavelli's personal correspondence with other Florentines is preserved, including some of the most famous letters in Italian. Of particular interest for example, are some of his letters to Francesco Vettori and Francesco Guicciardini, two men who had managed to stay in public service under the Medici, unlike Machiavelli. To Guicciardini for example he wrote concerning the selection of a preacher for Florence, that he would like a hypocritical one, and "I believe that the following would be the true way to go to Paradise: learn the way to Hell in order to steer clear of it." (Letter 270 in Machiavelli (1996))
  32. ^ Gilbert (1938)
  33. ^ While pride is a sin in the Bible, "Fortune favours the bold", used for example by Dent (1995) page xxii to summarize Machiavelli's stance concerning fortune, was a classical saying. That the desire for glory of spirited young men can and should be allowed or even encouraged, because it is how the best rulers come to be, is a theory expressed most famously by Plato in his Republic. (See Strauss (1958:289).) But as Strauss points out, Plato asserts that there is a higher type of life, and Machiavelli does not seem to accept this.
  34. ^ See for example Guarini (1999).
  35. ^ Strauss (1987:302)
  36. ^ Bireley (1990:15)
  37. ^ Haitsma Mulier (1999:248)
  38. ^ While Bireley focuses on writers in the Catholic countries, Haitsma Mulier (1999) makes the same observation, writing with more of a focus upon the Protestant Netherlands.
  39. ^ Bireley (1990:17)
  40. ^ Bireley (1990:18)
  41. ^ Bireley (1990:223–230)
  42. ^ Bireley (1990:17): "Jean Bodin's first comments, found in his Method for the Easy Comprehension of History, published in 1566, were positive."
  43. ^ Bacon wrote: "We are much beholden to Machiavelli and other writers of that class who openly and unfeignedly declare or describe what men do, and not what they ought to do." "II.21.9", Of the Advancement of Learning 
  44. ^ Worden (1999)
  45. ^ "Spinoza's Political Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  46. ^ Danford "Getting Our Bearings: Machiavelli and Hume" in Rahe (2006).
  47. ^ Schaefer (1990)
  48. ^ Kennington (2004), chapter 11.
  49. ^ Barnes Smith "The Philosophy of Liberty: Locke's Machiavellian Teaching" in Rahe (2006).
  50. ^ Carrese "The Machiavellian Spirit of Montesquieu's Liberal Republic" in Rahe (2006). Shklar "Montesquieu and the new republicanism" in Bock (1999).
  51. ^
  52. ^ Worden (1999)
  53. ^ Rahe (2006)
  54. ^ Walling "Was Alexander Hamilton a Machiavellian Statesman?" in Rahe (2006).
  55. ^ Harper (2004)
  56. ^ Machiavelli (2006)
  57. ^ Mussolini, "Preludio al Principe", Gerarchia 3 (1924).
  58. ^ Stalin: A Biography By Robert Service
  59. ^ "John Gotti – The Last Mafia Icon — Moving Up — Crime Library on". Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  60. ^ "Roy DeMeo — Another Perspective — Crime Library on". Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  61. ^ See also Mattingly (1958)
  62. ^ Baron 1961.

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