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There are both used by Steinbeck. Indirect presentation is when Kino hits Juana in chapter five, it shows just how isolated and out of touch he has become with his life. Kino felt "helpless" when he had no money for a doctor for his baby. This is an example of direct presentation.
Another example of direct character presentation is when Kino walks into the Pearl Buyer's office. Again Kino feels helpless,
"He felt the evil coagulating about him, and he was helpless to protect himself".
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