This collection of short stories, most of which take place in ordinary American settings, aptly demonstrates Jackson's penchant for suburban horror. As exemplified most clearly by "The Lottery," Jackson's vision of horror is not limited to haunted houses or exotic locations. On the contrary, horror is engendered in the mind, in the banal brutality of everyday individuals, who may be mothers, fathers, wives, and husbands. Unhappiness, sheer dissatisfaction with one's life, can lead to the blurring of reality and fantasy, and even madness. And in this madness, horror can come alive in the most mundane of settings and situations.
lonely (unmarried) women
Jackson's lonely women are most often portrayed as being unfulfilled and unhappy, both professionally and personally. They are most in danger of losing touch with reality and, in the extreme, becoming outright insane (as does Eleanor in Jackson's novel, The Haunting of Hill House). A few of these women who are also unmarried include the narrator of "The Daemon Lover," Marcia, and Elizabeth Style. However, the married female characters may also feel lonely, as do Mrs. Walpole, Mrs. Winning, and Emily Johnson. In some cases, their husbands are present but inconsequential or inattentive. In Emily's case, her husband is away in the army. Whatever the case, these female characters are most likely to usurp another's identity or lose their own.
city life versus country life
Jackson's stories favor neither cities nor more rural settings. However, she does clearly demonstrate a difference in mentality and lifestyle between these two opposing locations. For example, in "Pillar of Salt," Margaret is a woman from the country who becomes wholly paralyzed by her vacation in New York. In contrast, Mrs. Hart moves from the city and attempts to settle into the country life, but finds herself constrained by the narrow-minded gossip of the village. She is unable to stand up for herself and refuse Mrs. Anderson's request to move in with her family; instead, Mrs. Hart tries to imagine how glamorous this lifestyle will sound to her unknowing city friends.
To city people who move to the country, the prevalence of small-town gossip and narrow-minded attitudes constrains them. To country people who arrive in New York, they lose their identities in the faceless masses and find themselves struggling to maintain their sanity.
Many of the narrators and protagonists of Jackson's stories display signs of mental illness. Mrs. Arnold, in "Colloquy," explicitly addresses the issue of mental illness. However, this theme is most effectively displayed by the characters who are not even aware of their lack of consciousness of reality. In fact, the reader does not realize, for most of "The Daemon Lover," that the narrator has possibly conjured up the existence of James Harris and is in fact very ill. Similarly, Clara Spencer's journey to mental illness occurs stealthily and is initially masked by her groggy state.
Those of Jackson's stories which are not as dramatic or violent as "The Lottery" show the more subtle dangers of communities, particularly those that are close-knit and susceptible to gossip. Narrow-minded members of the community often force outsiders to conform to their expectations. When they do not conform, these outsiders are banished, such as Mrs. MacLane in "Flower Garden." Conformity exerts its influence in non-rural, city settings as well. Young women, such as Hilda Clarence or Elizabeth Style, move to New York in hopes of making their mark and becoming successful, the envy of their small-town friends and relatives. They are pressured to conform to certain expectations of success, and when these are not achieved, they become deeply dissatisfied with their lives and seek escape in fantasy.
significance of home
The home represents the stability of one's identity and correlates with certain aspects of one's identity, in many of Jackson's works. For example, those individuals without unique homes to call their own also do not retain a strong grasp on their individuality and fail to assert themselves. For example, Emily Johnson, who lives in a building with multiple identical apartments, is unable to stand up to Mrs. Allen and reclaim her belongings. David Turner, who allows Marcia's dominant personality to overcome him, thus loses his apartment and is relegated to hers.
Jackson's characters address their profound sense of unhappiness and dissatisfaction by seeking new identities. Instead of attempting to change their situations through concrete, realistic means, her characters dissolve their identities and attempt to usurp others. For example, Miss Hilda Clarence attempts to fulfill her ambition to become a dancer by pretending to be Mrs. Roberts. Marcia takes advantage of David Turner's hospitality and insinuates herself into his home, allowing Mr. Harris to believe that she is the rightful inhabitant of the apartment and the hostess.
Jackson touches briefly upon themes of racism in "After You, My Dear Alphonse" and "Flower Garden." Mrs. Wilson, in the former, attempts to mask her racism by being charitable towards Boyd, an African American child. However, she is only condescending to him and makes unjust and racist assumptions about his family situation. In "Flower Garden," the community's racism results in the ostracism of Mrs. MacLane and her son.
The Lottery and Other Stories Questions and Answers
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The Lottery and Other Stories literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Lottery and Other Stories by Shirley Jackson.