- The novella was adapted into a Yiddish play by Russian-Jewish playwright, Jacob Gordin, in 1902. American playwright Langdon Mitchell later adapted Gordin's version into English, which the debuted on Broadway on September 10, 1906.
- In 2007 in Wellington, New Zealand, a newly devised theatrical work, The Kreutzer, was premiered, combining dance, music, theatre and multimedia projections with both pieces of music (Beethoven and Janáček) played live. Adaptation, direction and choreography was by Sara Brodie. A reworked version was presented in Auckland during March 2009 at The Auckland Festival.
- The novella was adapted for the stage by Darko Spasov in 2008, and produced as a one-act play in 2009 for the National Theatre in Štip, Republic of Macedonia, directed by Ljupco Bresliski, performed by Milorad Angelov. 
- Laura Wade's Kreutzer vs. Kreutzer is also inspired by Tolstoy.
- The novella was adapted for the stage by Ted Dykstra and produced as a one-act play for the Art of Time Ensemble of Toronto in 2008, and again for the Soulpepper Theatre Company in 2011.
- Nancy Harris adapted the novella into a one-act monologue for the Gate Theatre in London in 2009, directed by Natalie Abrahami and starring Hilton McRae. The production was revived in 2012 to play again at the Gate Theatre, and also at La MaMa in New York City.
- Adapted by Sue Smith for the State Theatre Company of South Australia as a part of the Adelaide Festival directed by Geordie Brookman in 2013, starring Renato Musolino.
- Thais Sher has adapted this Novella for BBC Radio in 2011.
- Thais Sher has adapted this Novella for Television (2017).
The Kreutzer Sonata has been adapted for film well over a dozen times. Some of these include:
- The Kreutzer Sonata (1911, Russian Empire), directed by Pyotr Chardynin
- The Kreutzer Sonata (1914, Russian Empire), directed by Vladimir Gardin
- The Kreutzer Sonata (1915, USA), directed by Herbert Brenon
- Kreutzerova sonáta (1927, Czechoslovakia), directed by Gustav Machatý
- Kreutzersonate (1937, Germany), directed by Veit Harlan
- Amanti senza amore (1948, Italy), directed by Gianni Franciolini
- Kreitserova sonata (1969, TV, Yugoslavia) directed by Jovan Konjović
- The Kreutzer Sonata (1987, USSR), directed by Mikhail Shveytser
- Quale amore (2006, Italy), directed by Maurizio Sciarra
- The Kreutzer Sonata (2008, UK), directed by Bernard Rose and starring Elisabeth Röhm
- Sonata (2013, Spain), directed by Jon Ander Tomás
The novella, inspired by Beethoven's music, in turn gave rise to Leoš Janáček's First String Quartet.
In 2000, the Carolina Ballet, with original choreography by Robert Weiss and combining the music of Beethoven, Janáček, and J. Mark Scearce, mounted an innovative production combining dance and drama, with a narrator/actor telling the story and flashbacks leading into the ballet segments.
The novella also inspired the 1901 painting "Kreutzer Sonata" by René François Xavier Prinet, which shows a passionate kiss between the violinist and the pianist. The painting was used for years in Tabu perfume ads.
Arab Israeli author Sayed Kashua's 2010 novel Second Person Singular echoes the Kreutzer Sonata set in present day Israel. Also, a copy of The Kreutzer Sonata functions as a major plot device.