The Koran

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Qurʼān". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  2. ^ McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (2001). "Preface". Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān 1. Leiden: Brill. p. x. ISBN 978-90-04-11465-4. 
  3. ^ Lambert, Gray (2013). The Leaders Are Coming!. WestBow Press. p. 287. ISBN 9781449760137. 
  4. ^ Roy H. Williams; Michael R. Drew (2012). Pendulum: How Past Generations Shape Our Present and Predict Our Future. Vanguard Press. p. 143. ISBN 9781593157067. 
  5. ^
    • Chronology of Prophetic Events, Fazlur Rehman Shaikh (2001) p. 50 Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
    • Quran 17:105
  6. ^ a b Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.
  7. ^ Quran 17:106
  8. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). The Words and Will of God. Princeton University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-691-11461-7. 
  9. ^ a b Donner, Fred, "The historical context" in McAuliffe, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 31–33.
  10. ^ a b c Campo, Juan E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts On File. pp. 570–74. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1. 
  11. ^ Nigosian, S.A. (2004). Islam : its history, teaching and practices ([New ed.]. ed.). Indiana Univ. Press. pp. 65–80. ISBN 0-253-21627-3. 
  12. ^ Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002). Prophets in the Quran: an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. Continuum. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8264-4956-6. 
  13. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator - القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net
  14. ^ Nasr (2003), p. 42
  15. ^ Quran 2:67–76
  16. ^ Handbook of Islamic Marketing, Page 38, G. Rice - 2011
  17. ^ Literacy and Development: Ethnographic Perspectives - Page 193, Brian V Street - 2001
  18. ^ Apocalypse And/or Metamorphosis - Page 81, Norman Oliver Brown - 1991
  19. ^ "qryn". Retrieved 31 August 2013. 
  20. ^ Quran 75:17
  21. ^ Quran 7:204
  22. ^ See "Ķur'an, al-," Encyclopedia of Islam Online and [Quran 9:111]
  23. ^ Quran 20:2 cf.
  24. ^ Quran 25:32 cf.
  25. ^ According to Welch in the Encyclopedia of Islam, the verses pertaining to the usage of the word hikma should probably be interpreted in the light of IV, 105, where it is said that "Muhammad is to judge (tahkum) mankind on the basis of the Book sent down to him."
  26. ^ Abbas Jaffer, Masuma Jaffer (2009). Quranic Sciences. ICAS press. pp. 11–15. ISBN 1-904063-30-6. 
  27. ^ "Quran", "Koran". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  28. ^ a b c d Tabatabai, Sayyid M. H. (1987). The Qur'an in Islam : its impact and influence on the life of muslims. Zahra Publ. ISBN 0710302665. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Richard Bell (Revised and Enlarged by W. Montgomery Watt) (1970). Bell's introduction to the Qur'an. Univ. Press. pp. 31–51. ISBN 0852241712. 
  30. ^ a b P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton and Bernard Lewis (1970). The Cambridge history of Islam (Reprint. ed.). Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780521291354. 
  31. ^ Denffer, Ahmad von (1985). Ulum al-Qur'an : an introduction to the sciences of the Qur an (Repr. ed.). Islamic Foundation. p. 37. ISBN 0860371328. 
  32. ^ Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 1. Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. "God's Apostle replied, 'Sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says.' ʻAisha added: Verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the Sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)."
  33. ^ Quran 53:5
  34. ^ Quran 53:6–9
  35. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam online, Muhammad article
  36. ^ Quran 7:157
  37. ^ Günther, Sebastian (2002). "Muhammad, the Illiterate Prophet: An Islamic Creed in the Quran and Quranic Exegesis". Journal of Quranic Studies 4 (1): 1–26. doi:10.3366/jqs.2002.4.1.1. 
  38. ^ al-Bukhari, Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari, volume 6, book 61, narrations number 509 and 510". 810-870 CE. http://www.sahih-bukhari.com. Retrieved Aug 2013. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h Rippin, Andrew et al. (2006). The Blackwell companion to the Qur'an ([2a reimpr.] ed.). Blackwell. ISBN 978140511752-4.  CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
    • see section Poetry and Language by Navid Kermani, p.107-120.
    • For eschatology, see Discovering (final destination) by Christopher Buck, p.30.
    • For writing and printing, see section Written Transmission by François Déroche, p.172-187.
    • For literary structure, see section Language by Mustansir Mir, p.93.
    • For the history of compilation see Introduction by Tamara Sonn p.5-6
    • For recitation, see Recitation by Anna M. Gade p.481-493
  40. ^ Mohamad K. Yusuff, Zayd ibn Thabit and the Glorious Qur'an
  41. ^ The Koran; A Very Short Introduction, Michael Cook. Oxford University Press, pp. 117–124
  42. ^ F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5: "Few have failed to be convinced that … the Quran is … the words of Muhammad, perhaps even dictated by him after their recitation."
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32639-7. 
    • For God in the Quran (Allah), see Allah by Zeki Saritoprak, p. 33-40.
    • For eschatology, see Eschatology by Zeki Saritoprak, p. 194-199.
    • For searching the Arabic text on the internet and writing, see Cyberspace and the Qur'an by Andrew Rippin, p.159-163.
    • For calligraphy, see by Calligraphy and the Qur'an by Oliver Leaman, p 130-135.
    • For translation, see Translation and the Qur'an by Afnan Fatani, p.657-669.
    • For recitation, see Art and the Qur'an by Tamara Sonn, p.71-81 and Reading by Stefan Wild, p.532-535.
  44. ^ "Basic Mechanics of Islamic Capitalism". google.com
  45. ^ For both the claim that variant readings are still transmitted and the claim that no such critical edition has been produced, see Gilliot, C., "Creation of a fixed text" in McAuliffe, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 52.
  46. ^ Arthur Jeffery and St. Clair-Tisdal et al, Edited by Ibn Warraq, Summarised by Sharon Morad, Leeds. "The Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam's Holy Book". Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  47. ^ F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5: "Few have failed to be convinced that the Quran is the words of Muhammad, perhaps even dictated by him after their recitation."
  48. ^ "'The Qur'an: Text, Interpretation and Translation' Third Biannual SOAS Conference, October 16–17, 2003". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 6 (1): 143–145. April 2004. doi:10.3366/jqs.2004.6.1.143. 
  49. ^ Bergmann, Uwe; Sadeghi, Behnam (September 2010). "The Codex of a Companion of the Prophet and the Qurān of the Prophet". Arabica 57 (4): 343–436. doi:10.1163/157005810X504518. 
  50. ^ Sadeghi, Behnam; Goudarzi, Mohsen (March 2012). "Ṣan'ā' 1 and the Origins of the Qur'ān". Der Islam 87 (1-2): 1–129. doi:10.1515/islam-2011-0025. 
  51. ^ "World's oldest Quran found at Birmingham University". PressTV. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  52. ^ a b Coughlan, Sean. "'Oldest' Koran fragments found in Birmingham University". BBC. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  53. ^ Dan Bilefsky (July 22, 2015). "A Find in Britain: Quran Fragments Perhaps as Old as Islam". New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2015. 
  54. ^ Watton, Victor, (1993), A student's approach to world religions:Islam, Hodder & Stoughton, pg 1. ISBN 978-0-340-58795-9
  55. ^ See:
    • Corbin (1993), p.12
    • Wild (1996), pp. 137, 138, 141 and 147
    • Quran 2:97
    • Quran 17:105
  56. ^ Jenssen, H., "Arabic Language" in McAuliffe et al. (eds.), Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān, vol. 1 (Brill, 2001), pp. 127-135.
  57. ^ a b c Sonn, Tamara (2010). Islam : a brief history (Second ed. ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8093-1.  CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
  58. ^ Quran 85:22
  59. ^ Corbin (1993), p.10
  60. ^ Mir Sajjad Ali, Zainab Rahman (2010). Islam and Indian Muslims. Kalpaz Publications. p. 21. ISBN 8178358050. 
  61. ^ Quran 1:1–7
  62. ^ "Afghan Quran-burning protests: What's the right way to dispose of a Quran?". Slate Magazine
  63. ^ Sengers -, Erik (2005). Dutch and Their Gods. p. 129. 
  64. ^ Quran 17:88
  65. ^ Vasalou, Sophia (2002). "The Miraculous Eloquence of the Qur'an: General Trajectories and Individual Approaches". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 4 (2): 23–53. doi:10.3366/jqs.2002.4.2.23. 
  66. ^ See:
    • "Kur`an, al-," Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
    • Allen (2000) p. 53
  67. ^ Dukes, Kais. "RE: Number of Unique Words in the Quran". www.mail-archive.com. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  68. ^ a b Saeed, Abdullah (2008). The Qurʼan : an introduction. London: Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 9780415421249. 
  69. ^ Quran 67:3
  70. ^ Haleem, Muhammad Abdel (2005). Understanding the Qur'an : themes and style. I.B. Tauris. p. 82. ISBN 9781860646508. 
  71. ^ a b c Martin, Richard C. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 568–62 (By Farid Esack). ISBN 0028656032. 
  72. ^ Quran 41:43
  73. ^ Izutsu, Toshihiko (2007). Ethico-religious concepts in the Qur'an (Repr. 2007 ed.). McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 184. ISBN 0773524274. 
  74. ^ Quran 2:274
  75. ^ Quran 9:103
  76. ^ Issa Boullata, "Literary Structure of Quran", Encyclopedia of the Qurʾān, vol.3 p.192, 204
  77. ^ Jewishencyclopedia.com – Körner, Moses B. Eliezer
  78. ^ "The final process of collection and codification of the Quran text was guided by one over-arching principle: God's words must not in any way be distorted or sullied by human intervention. For this reason, no serious attempt, apparently, was made to edit the numerous revelations, organize them into thematic units, or present them in chronological order.... This has given rise in the past to a great deal of criticism by European and American scholars of Islam, who find the Quran disorganized, repetitive and very difficult to read." Approaches to the Asian Classics, Irene Blomm, William Theodore De Bary, Columbia University Press, 1990, p. 65
  79. ^ Samuel Pepys: "One feels it difficult to see how any mortal ever could consider this Quran as a Book written in Heaven, too good for the Earth; as a well-written book, or indeed as a book at all; and not a bewildered rhapsody; written, so far as writing goes, as badly as almost any book ever was!" http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/display.php?table=review&id=21
  80. ^ Michael Sells, Approaching the Qur'ān (White Cloud Press, 1999)
  81. ^ Norman O. Brown, "The Apocalypse of Islam". Social Text 3:8 (1983–1984)
  82. ^ Quran 21:50
  83. ^ Wild, ed. by Stefan (2006). Self-referentiality in the Qur'an. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3447053836. 
  84. ^ a b "Tafsir Al-Mizan". almizan.org
  85. ^ Quran 2:151
  86. ^ How can there be abrogation in the Quran?
  87. ^ "Are the verses of the Qur'an Abrogated and/or Subtituted?". mostmerciful.com
  88. ^ Islahi, Amin Ahsan. "Abrogation in the Qur'ān". Renaissance Journal. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  89. ^ Tafsir Kabeer by Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad
  90. ^ a b Godlas, Alan (2008). The Blackwell companion to the Qur'an (Pbk. ed. ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 350–362. ISBN 1405188200.  CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
  91. ^ Sands, Kristin Zahra (2006). Sufi commentaries on the Qur'an in classical Islam (1. publ., transferred to digital print. ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0415366852. 
  92. ^ Keeler, Annabel (2006). "Sufi tafsir as a Mirror: al-Qushayri the murshid in his Lataif al-isharat". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 8 (1): 1–21. doi:10.3366/jqs.2006.8.1.1. 
  93. ^ Tabataba'I, Tafsir Al-Mizan, The Principles of Interpretation of the Quran
  94. ^ a b c Tabataba'I, Tafsir Al-Mizan, Topic: Decisive and Ambiguous verses and "ta'wil"
  95. ^ Quran 3:7
  96. ^ "Tabatabaee (1988), pp. 37–45". maaref-foundation.com
  97. ^ Mojaddedi, Jawid (2008). The Blackwell companion to the Qur'an (Pbk. ed. ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 363–373. ISBN 1405188200.  CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
  98. ^ a b Elias, Jamal (2010). "Sufi tafsir Reconsidered: Exploring the Development of a Genre". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 12: 41–55. doi:10.3366/jqs.2010.0104. 
  99. ^ a b Corbin (1993), p.7
  100. ^ Tabatabaee, Tafsir Al-Mizan
  101. ^ Corbin (1993), p.13
  102. ^ Miller, Duane Alexander (June 2009). "REAPPROPRIATION: AN ACCOMMODATIONIST HERMENEUTIC OF ISLAMIC CHRISTIANITY". St Francis Magazine 5 (3): 30–33. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  103. ^ Aslan, Reza (20 November 2008). "How To Read the Quran". Slate. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  104. ^ An-Nawawi, Al-Majmu', (Cairo, Matba‘at at-Tadamun n.d.), 380.
  105. ^ Monthlycrescent.com
  106. ^ "More than 300 publishers visit Quran exhibition in Iran". Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review. 12 August 2010. 
  107. ^ Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila (2002). Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 42. 
  108. ^ "Ahmadiyya Muslim Community". alislam.org
  109. ^ [1]
  110. ^ "Surah 3 – Read Quran Online". Retrieved 21 November 2010. 
  111. ^ Nelson, Kristina (2001). The art of reciting the Qur'an (New ed.). Cairo [u.a.]: American Univ. in Cairo Press. ISBN 9774245946. 
  112. ^ Melchert, Christopher (2000). "Ibn Mujahid and the Establishment of Seven Qur'anic Readings". Studia Islamica (91): 5–22. 
  113. ^ Small, Keith E. (2011). Textual Criticism and Qur'an Manuscripts. Lexington Books. pp. 109–111. ISBN 9780739142912. 
  114. ^ Melchert, Christopher (2008). "The Relation of the Ten Readings to One Another". Journal of Quranic Studies 10 (2): 73–87. doi:10.3366/e1465359109000424. 
  115. ^ Hekmat Nasser, Shady (2012). The Transmission of the Variant Readings of the Quran: The Problem of Tawatur and the Emergence of Shawdhdh. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 9004240810. 
  116. ^ Dutton, Yasin (2001). "An Early Mushaf According To The Reading Of Ibn ʻAmir". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 3 (2): 71–89. doi:10.3366/jqs.2001.3.1.71. 
  117. ^ Rabb, Intisar (2006). "Non-Canonical Readings of the Qur'an: Recognition and Authenticity (The Ḥimṣī Reading)". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 8 (2): 88–127. doi:10.3366/jqs.2006.8.2.84. 
  118. ^ Peter G. Riddell, Tony Street, Anthony Hearle Johns, Islam: essays on scripture, thought and society : a festschrift in honour of Anthony H. Johns, pp. 170–174, BRILL, 1997, ISBN 978-90-04-10692-5, ISBN 978-90-04-10692-5
  119. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi, Subjects of the Sultan: culture and daily life in the Ottoman Empire, pp, 134–136, I.B.Tauris, 2005, ISBN 978-1-85043-760-4, ISBN 978-1-85043-760-4;The Encyclopaedia of Islam: Fascicules 111–112 : Masrah Mawlid, Clifford Edmund Bosworth
  120. ^ "Muslim Printing Before Gutenberg". muslimheritage.com
  121. ^ Krek 1979, p. 203
  122. ^ First Printed Edition of the Qur'an The First Printed Complete Arabic Quran East Meets West In Venice: The First-Ever Printed Arabic Edition Of Quran
  123. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi, Subjects of the Sultan: culture and daily life in the Ottoman Empire, pp, 134-136, I.B.Tauris, 2005, ISBN 1-85043-760-2, ISBN 978-1-85043-760-4;The Encyclopaedia of Islam: Fascicules 111-112 : Masrah Mawlid, Clifford Edmund Bosworth
  124. ^ Watson 1968, p. 435; Clogg 1979, p. 67
  125. ^ "the major Ottoman printing houses published a combined total of only 142 books in more than a century of printing between 1727 and 1838. When taken in conjunction with the fact that only a miniscule number of copies of each book were printed, this statistic demonstrates that the introduction of the printing press did not transform Ottoman cultural life until the emergence of vibrant print media in the middle of the nineteenth century" Şükrü Hanioğlu, "A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire", Princeton University Press (2010), cited after Suresh Emre, On the late adoption of the printing press in the Ottoman Empire (2014).
  126. ^ "at imperial expense, a 'Tatar and Turkish Typography' was established in St. Petersburg; a domestic scholar, Mullah Osman Ismail, was responsible for the manufacture of the types. One of the first products of this printing house was the Qur'ān. Through the doctor and writer, Johann Georg v. Zimmermann (d. 1795), who was befriended by Catherine II, a copy of the publication arrived in the Göttingen University library. Its director, the philologist Christian Gottlob Heyne (d. 1812), presented the work immediately in the Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen (28 July 1788); therein he pointed especially to the beauty of the Arabic types. To the Arabic text marginal glosses have been added that consist predominantly of reading variants. The imprint was reproduced unchanged in 1790 and 1793 in St. Petersburg (cf. Schnurrer, Bibliotheca arabica, no. 384); later, after the transfer of the printing house to Kazan, editions appeared in different formats and with varying presentation (Dorn, Chronologisches Verzeichnis, 371)." Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān: P-Sh ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Brill, 2004, p. 251. For the 1803 Kazan edition: Chauvin, V.C. Bib. des ouvrages arabes, vol. X, 95; Schnurrer, C.F. von. Bibliotheca Arabica, 385. Original held by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek -- Munich, Germany, Shelfmark BSB A.or.554.
  127. ^ 3:3 نزل عليك الكتاب بالحق مصدقا لما بين يديه وانزل التوراة والانجيل
  128. ^ Quran 2:285
  129. ^ "Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement". usc.edu
  130. ^ Annabel Keeler, "Moses from a Muslim Perspective", in: Solomon, Norman; Harries, Richard; Winter, Tim (eds.), Abraham's children: Jews, Christians and Muslims in conversation, by. T&T Clark Publ. (2005), pp. 55 - 66.
  131. ^ Esposito, John L. The Future of Islam. Oxford University Press US, 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-516521-0 p. 40
  132. ^ Christian Lore and the Arabic Qur'an by Signey Griffith, p.112, in The Qurʼān in its historical context, Gabriel Said Reynolds, ed. Psychology Press, 2008
  133. ^ Qur'an-Bible Comparison: A Topical Study of the Two Most Influential and Respectful Books in Western and Middle Eastern Civilizations by Ami Ben-Chanan, p. 197–198, Trafford Publishing, 2011
  134. ^ New Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1967, the Catholic University of America, Washington DC, Vol. VII, p.677
  135. ^ "On pre-Islamic Christian strophic poetical texts in the Koran" by Ibn Rawandi, found in What the Koran Really Says: Language, Text and Commentary, Ibn Warraq, Prometheus Books, ed. ISBN 978-1-57392-945-5
  136. ^ Wadad Kadi and Mustansir Mir, Literature and the Quran, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, vol. 3, pp. 213, 216
  137. ^ dictionary.reference.com: koran
  138. ^ dictionary.reference.com: quran
  139. ^ Cambridge dictionary: koran
  140. ^ Cambridge dictionary: quran

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