The story, as well as the Litany of the Law, have inspired multiple derivative works and popular culture references.
- The Madman's Daughter trilogy, written by Megan Shepherd, tells the story of Dr. Moreau's daughter, Juliet. However, each book is based on a different classic novel: the first book is based on this novel by H.G. Wells, the second one on Robert Louis Stevenson's Jekyll and Hyde (1886), and the final book is based on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818).
- In chapter 61 of The Fallen (2013), book five of Charlie Higson's post-apocalyptic horror series, The Enemy, the expedition party from the museum encounters a strange set of malformed children at the biomedical company Promithios, who recite the Litany of the Law.
- The Only Living Boy the young-adult graphic novel by David Gallaher and Steve Ellis comics is described by the author as a hybrid of The Jungle Book and The Island of Docotor Moreau. The character, Doctor Once, is based on the Moreau.
- Are We Not Men? We Are Devo!
- Are We Not Men? We Are Diva!, titled in response to the DEVO album
- Are We Not Horses
- No Spill Blood, from Oingo Boingo's Good For Your Soul album
- House of Pain is an American hip hop group whose name is a reference to the novel- a reference carried further by the naming of their 2011 tour "He Who Breaks the Law". Dialogue samples from the 1977 movie are used as snippets within the album
The Island of Dr. Moreau has been used as a plot device in the BBC America series Orphan Black.