The Importance of Being Earnest

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ "Bunburying", which indicates a double life as an excuse for absence, is—according to a letter from Aleister Crowley to R. H. Bruce Lockhart—an inside joke that came about after Wilde boarded a train at Banbury on which he met a schoolboy. They got into conversation and subsequently arranged to meet again at Sunbury.[4] Carolyn Williams in a 2010 study writes that for the word "Bunburying", Wilde "braids the 'Belvawneying' evil eye from Gilbert's Engaged (1877) with 'Bunthorne' from Patience".[5]
  2. ^ This caused a breach between the author and actor which lasted for some years; Alexander later paid Wilde small monthly sums, and bequeathed his rights in the play to the author's son Vyvian Holland.[18]
  3. ^ In a 2003 study, Richard Fotheringham writes that in Australia, unlike Britain and the US, Wilde's name was not excluded from billings, and the critics and public took a much more relaxed view of Wilde's crimes. A command performance of the play was given by Boucicault's company in the presence of the Governor of Victoria.[21]
  4. ^ Victorien Sardou was a French dramatist known for his careful, but rather mechanical, plotting.[30]
  5. ^ George VI was not the first British king who had attended a performance of the play: his grandfather Edward VII, when Prince of Wales, was in the audience for the first production.[45]
  6. ^ Rutherford switched roles, from Miss Prism to Lady Bracknell for the North American production; Jean Cadell played Miss Prism. Robert Flemyng played Algy.[47] The cast was given a special Tony Award for "Outstanding Foreign Company".[48]
  7. ^ Twenty-three years earlier Dench had played Cecily to the Lady Bracknell of Fay Compton in a 1959 Old Vic production that included in the cast Alec McCowen, Barbara Jefford and Miles Malleson.[51]
  8. ^ Best Revival of a Play, Best Costume Design of a Play and Best Leading Actor in a Play for Bedford (winning for costumes).[57] The production was filmed live in March 2011 and was shown in cinemas in June 2011.[58]
  9. ^ Lady Bracknell's line, "A handbag?", has been called one of the most malleable in English drama, lending itself to interpretations ranging from incredulous or scandalised to baffled. Edith Evans, both on stage and in the 1952 film, delivered the line loudly in a mixture of horror, incredulity and condescension.[60] Stockard Channing, in the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin in 2010, hushed the line, in a critic's words, "with a barely audible 'A handbag?', rapidly swallowed up with a sharp intake of breath. An understated take, to be sure, but with such a well-known play, packed full of witticisms and aphorisms with a life of their own, it's the little things that make a difference."[61]
  10. ^ Wilde himself evidently took sandwiches with due seriousness. Max Beerbohm recounted in a letter to Reggie Turner Wilde's difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory offering: "He ordered a watercress sandwich: which in due course was brought to him: not a thin, diaphanous green thing such as he had meant but a very stout satisfying article of food. This he ate with assumed disgust (but evident relish) and when he paid the waiter, he said: 'Tell the cook of this restaurant with the compliments of Mr Oscar Wilde that these are the very worst sandwiches in the whole world and that, when I ask for a watercress sandwich, I do not mean a loaf with a field in the middle of it.'"[63]
  11. ^ Since Bostridge wrote his article at least one further musical version of the play has been staged. A show with a book by Douglas Livingstone and score by Adam McGuinness and Zia Moranne was staged in December 2011 at the Riverside Studios, Hammersmith; the cast included Susie Blake, Gyles Brandreth and Edward Petherbridge.[101]
References
  1. ^ Ellmann (1988:397)
  2. ^ Raby (1988:120)
  3. ^ Ellmann (1988:363,399)
  4. ^ D'Arch Smith (1998:7–8)
  5. ^ Williams, p. 156
  6. ^ Denisoff (2001:66); Feingold, Michael, "Engaging the Past"; Hudson (1951:101–105); Jackson (1980:xxxvi); Koerble (1952:144); Pearson (1957:63); Raby (1995:28); Stedman (1996:151); Thompson (2006:255); and Williams (2012:156, 411)
  7. ^ Jackson (1980:xxxvi)
  8. ^ a b c Jackson (1997:163)
  9. ^ a b Eltis (1996:177)
  10. ^ a b c d Ellmann (1988:398)
  11. ^ a b Jackson (1997:165)
  12. ^ a b Ellmann (1988:406)
  13. ^ Raby (1988:121)
  14. ^ a b Mendelshon, Daniel; The Two Oscar Wildes, New York Review of Books, Volume 49, Number 15, 10 October 2002
  15. ^ Raby, 1995 in Pablé (2005:301)
  16. ^ Pearson (1946:257)
  17. ^ a b Jackson (1997:171)
  18. ^ a b Wearing, J P. "Alexander, Sir George (1858–1918)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 31 July 2013 (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  19. ^ Mason (1917:432)
  20. ^ a b c Hischak (2009:2527)
  21. ^ a b Fotheringham, Richard. "Exiled to the Colonies—'Oscar Wilde' in Australia, 1895–1897", Nineteenth Century Theatre and Film, Winter 2003, pp. 53–68
  22. ^ a b Jackson (1997:172)
  23. ^ Beckson (1970:195)
  24. ^ Beckson (1970:194)
  25. ^ Beckson (1970:189,190)
  26. ^ Beckson (1970:196)
  27. ^ a b Beckson (1970:188)
  28. ^ The Importance of Being Earnest, Oxford World Classics, Peter Raby, Introduction, p.xxiii
  29. ^ ..."you are aware of the mechanism, you are aware of Sardou": Beerbohm (1970:509).
  30. ^ Bloom (2008:143)
  31. ^ Bristow (2008:xxxvii)
  32. ^ "The Theatres: Mr. George Alexander at the Royal" The Manchester Guardian, 5 November 1901, p. 6
  33. ^ "The Theatres", The Observer, 12 January 1902, p. 4"
  34. ^ "Oscar Wilde Comedy Revived at Lyceum", The New York Times, 15 November 1910
  35. ^ "St James's Theatre", The Times, 2 December 1909, p. 12
  36. ^ a b Beerbohm (1970:510)
  37. ^ "St James's Theatre", The Times, 17 February 1913, p. 10
  38. ^ "Haymarket Theatre", The Times, 22 November 1922, p. 12
  39. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest—a case for period costume", The Manchester Guardian, 3 May 1927, p. 14
  40. ^ Brown, Ivor, "'The Importance of Being Earnest'—A Hammersmith Production", The Manchester Guardian, 8 July 1930, p. 6
  41. ^ "Globe Theatre", The Times, 1 February 1939, p. 12
  42. ^ "Globe Theatre", The Times, 17 August 1939, p. 8
  43. ^ "Court Circular", The Times, 12 April 1946, p. 7
  44. ^ Wheatcroft, Geoffrey. "Not Green, Not Red, Not Pink", The Atlantic Monthly, May 2003
  45. ^ "Court Circular", The Times, 30 May 1895, p. 12
  46. ^ Atkinson, Brooks. "John Gielgud's Version of Oscar Wilde's Play", The New York Times, 9 March 1947, p. xi (subscription required)
  47. ^ Hayman (1971:155)
  48. ^ Tony Awards archive.www.broadwayworld.com
  49. ^ Sandulescu (1994:156)
  50. ^ Lawson, Mark. "Out of gags? Try Oscar Wilde", The Independent, 14 February 1995
  51. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest Revived", The Times, 14 October 1959, p. 4
  52. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", National Theatre, accessed 28 July 2013
  53. ^ a b c Bostridge, Mark. " Earnest the musical? Earnest the sequel? Don't laugh...", The Independent on Sunday, 1 September 2002
  54. ^ "Review: The Importance of Being Earnest", The Sunday Business Post, 31 July 2005; and "Theatre Review:The Importance of Being Earnest", Raidió Teilifís Éireann, 28 July 2005
  55. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", Melbourne Theatre Company, accessed 22 December 2011
  56. ^ Jones, Kenneth. "A Wilde Hit! Broadway's Earnest Gets 17-Week Extension, Bumping People Musical to Studio 54", Playbill.com, accessed 26 January 2011
  57. ^ "Tony Award nominees, 2010–11", 3 May 2011
  58. ^ "Zooming in on handbag", Playbill.com, accessed 28 July 2013
  59. ^ Jackson (1980:3)
  60. ^ Handbags at dawn The Guardian, 23 January 2010
  61. ^ Walsh, Fintan. "Review:The Importance of Being Earnest", Irish Theatre Magazine 8 June 2010
  62. ^ Ransome (1912:139)
  63. ^ Hart-Davis (1978:141)
  64. ^ a b Pablé (2005:302)
  65. ^ Raby 1997:169)
  66. ^ a b Pablé (2005:301)
  67. ^ Ellmann (1988:94)
  68. ^ Jackson (1997:173)
  69. ^ Raby (1997:169)
  70. ^ Pablé (2005:303)
  71. ^ Pablé (2005:304)
  72. ^ Raby (1997:170)
  73. ^ Dennis (2008:123)
  74. ^ Nicholson (1892:61)
  75. ^ Ellmann (1988:33)
  76. ^ Ellmann (1988:88)
  77. ^ a b The Times, 2 February 2001, p. 19
  78. ^ Jackson (1997:167)
  79. ^ Jackson (1997:168)
  80. ^ a b Raby (1988:125)
  81. ^ a b Jackson (1988:xxix)
  82. ^ Ransome (1912:136)
  83. ^ Foster, Richard. "Wilde as a Parodist: A Second Look at the Importance of Being Earnest". Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  84. ^ Janjua, Qaiser. "The Importance of Being Earnest". Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  85. ^ Reinert, Otto. "Satiric Strategy in the Importance of Being Earnest" (PDF). Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  86. ^ Mason (1917:430)
  87. ^ a b Ellmann (1988:527)
  88. ^ Mason (1917:429)
  89. ^ "Rare book found in charity shop", BBC, accessed 3 May 2010
  90. ^ Pablé (2005:299)
  91. ^ Pablé (2005:318)
  92. ^ a b Pablé (2005:319)
  93. ^ Pablé (2005:314)
  94. ^ Editions Actes Sud-Papiers. Paris, January 2001. ISBN 2-86943-003-5
  95. ^ Pablé (2005:317)
  96. ^ The Importance of Being Earnest 1952, accessed 5 September 2010.
  97. ^ The Importance of Being Earnest 1992. imdb.com, accessed 5 September 2010
  98. ^ Ebert, Roger, The Chicago Sun-TimesThe Importance of Being Earnest review 24 May 2002, accessed 3 May 2010.
  99. ^ "Theatrical Works—Opera", Erik Chisholm Trust, accessed 12 September 2010
  100. ^ http://www.schott-music.com/shop/products/show,266556,,f.html
  101. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest—A new musical", accessed 2 August 2013
  102. ^ "Broadcasting", The Times, 23 November 1923, p. 19
  103. ^ "Broadcasting", The Times, 3 May 1927, p. 25; 21 November 1936, p. 23
  104. ^ ISBN 978-1408426937
  105. ^ ISBN 1-85998-218-2
  106. ^ ISBN 0-563-47803-9
  107. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", British Film Institute, accessed 28 July 2013
  108. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", British Film Institute, accessed 28 July 2013
  109. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", WorldCat, accessed 28 July 2013
  110. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", WorldCat, accessed 28 July 2013
  111. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", WorldCat, accessed 28 July 2013
  112. ^ "The Importance of Being Earnest", WorldCat, accessed 2 August 2013
  113. ^ "L.A. Theatre Works audio theatre collection", WorldCat, accessed 2 August 2013

This content is from Wikipedia. GradeSaver is providing this content as a courtesy until we can offer a professionally written study guide by one of our staff editors. We do not consider this content professional or citable. Please use your discretion when relying on it.