The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Drama adaptations

To date, all of the film and TV adaptations have strayed somewhat from the original plot, some going as far as to give it a happy ending, as in the classic 1939 film starring Charles Laughton as Quasimodo and Maureen O'Hara as Esmeralda (although Quasimodo loses her to Gringoire in this version). The 1956 French film, starring Anthony Quinn and Gina Lollobrigida, is one of the few versions to end almost exactly like the novel, although it changes other sections of the story. Unlike most adaptations, the 1996 Disney version has an ending that is inspired by an opera created by Hugo himself.


  • Esmeralda (1905 film)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1911 film)
  • The Darling of Paris
  • Esmeralda (1922 film)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923 film)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939 film)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1956 film)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1986 film)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996 film)
  • The Hunchback (1997 film)
  • Quasimodo d'El Paris


  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1966 miniseries)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1977 miniseries)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1982 film)
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1986 film)
  • The Magical Adventures of Quasimodo


  • In 1977, an adaptation by Ken Hill was commissioned and staged by the National Theatre in London.
  • In 2010, an adaptation by Pip Utton was staged at The Pleasance as part of the Edinburgh Fringe Festival.
  • In 2012, an adaptation by Belt Up Theatre was staged in Selby Abbey.
  • In 2013, an adaptation by James Villafuerte was staged in Tanghalang Pasigueño Villa Teatro
  • In 2013, an English adaptation of Der Glöckner von Notre Dame by The King's Academy Fine Arts Department was staged in The King's Academy Sports & Fine Arts Center
  • In 2014, a musical adaptation of the novel using songs from the Disney film and Der Glöckner von Notre Dame opened at La Jolla Playhouse, produced in association with Paper Mill Playhouse by special arrangement with Disney Theatrical Group.[7]


  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame by Alec R. Costandinos and the Syncophonic Orchestra from 1977, a lush orchestral disco 28 minute epic re-telling the tale of Quasimodo and Esmeralda.
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame is a 1996 recording of music written by Styx singer Dennis DeYoung for his musical adaptation of the novel.
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame is the soundtrack to the 1996 Disney film, released by Walt Disney Records.

Musical theatre

  • La Esmeralda, opera by Louise Bertin (1836), libretto by Victor Hugo.
  • Esmeralda, opera by Alexander Dargomyzhsky (1847) based on the Victor Hugo novel.
  • Esmeralda, opera by Arthur Goring Thomas (1883), also based on the same Victor Hugo novel.
  • Notre Dame, romantic Opera in two acts by Franz Schmidt, text after Victor Hugo by Schmidt and Leopold Wilk; composed: 1902-4, 1st perf.: Vienna 1914.
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1993), an Off Broadway musical with music by Byron Janis, lyrics by Hal Hackady and book by Anthony Scully.[8]
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1993), a dramatic sung-through musical with book and lyrics by Gary Sullivan and music by John Trent Wallace.[9] After a production at the Mermaid Theatre in London it was published by Samuel French Ltd in 1997 and has received several UK productions as well as productions in New Zealand and Australia. In 2010 it was re-written as a conventional musical, with the new title Notre Dame.[10]
  • El Jorobado de París (1993), an Argentinian sung-through musical with book and lyrics by Pepe Cibrián Campoy and music by Ángel Mahler. Two revised versions opened in 1995 and 2006.
  • In 1998, Notre-Dame de Paris opened in Paris and became an instant success. It is considered the most successful adaptation of any novel except for "The Phantom of the Opera" and "Les Misérables." It was also adapted for the stage by Nicholas DeBaubien.[11]
  • From 1999 to 2002, the Disney film was adapted into a darker, more Gothic musical production called Der Glöckner von Notre Dame (translated in English as The Bellringer of Notre Dame), re-written and directed by James Lapine and produced by the Disney theatrical branch, in Berlin. A cast recording was also recorded in German.[12] There has been discussion of an American revival of the musical.
  • A rock musical version was released in Seattle, Washington in 1998 titled "Hunchback" with music and script by C. Rainey Lewis.[13]
  • A musical version, scored by Dennis DeYoung, opened in Chicago at the Bailiwick Repertory in the summer of 2008.[14]
  • A re-adaptation of the piece entitled "Our Lady of Paris" with music and lyrics by David Levinson and book by Stacey Weingarten was produced in a reading format in Manhattan. It re-sets the action to 1954 at the beginning of the French Algerian conflict. Directed by Donna Drake, Music Directed by Mark Hartman, starring Michael Barr, Matt Doyle, Adam Halpin, Sevan Greene, Nadine Malouf, Megan Reinking and Price Waldman. After the first reading the piece underwent revisions; a second reading was produced in January 2011 under the musical's new title, Les Enfants de Paris.
  • Notre-Dame de Paris is an operatic melodrama by Zigmars Liepiņš based on the novel.


  • La Esmeralda (1844) - choreography by Jules Perrot, music by Cesare Pugni. First performed at Her Majesty's Theatre in London. The ballet has a long performance history in Russia via the revivals of the choreographer Marius Petipa in St. Petersburg throughout the late 19th century.
  • Gudule’s Daughter, or Esmiralda (1902) – choreography by Alexander Alexeyevich Gorsky, music by Antoine Simon
  • Notre-Dame de Paris (1965) – choreography by Roland Petit, first performed by the Paris Opera Ballet.
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1998) – choreography and direction by Michael Pink and original music score by Philip Feeney; currently in the repertoire of Milwaukee Ballet, Boston Ballet, Royal New Zealand Ballet, Atlanta Ballet and Colorado Ballet.
  • Ringaren i Notre Dame (The Bellringer of Notre Dame; 2009) – choreography by Pär Isberg and original music score by Stefan Nilsson, first performed on Friday, April 3, by the Royal Swedish Ballet.


The book was twice adapted and broadcast by BBC Radio 4 as its Classic Serial:

  • in 5 parts from 6 January to 3 February 1989, with Jack Klaff as Quasimodo
  • in 2 parts on 30 November and 7 December 2008, with deaf actor David Bower playing Quasimodo.

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