the differences between the role religion plays in the "Old Testament" (Rachel's past with her family) in chapter 5 and the "New Testament" in chapter 6 (Rachel's independent life)?
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In the "Old Testament" Ruth describes he painful years living with her Jewish family. The Old Testament years are filled with pain and abuse, especially at her father's hands. We get the sense of innocent suffering like in the Book of Job. In the "New Testament" in chapter 6 Ruth undergoes a resurrection of sorts (hence New Testament). James describes how his mother embraced Christianity and divorced herself from the old.