in regards to characters lopakhin and trophimov
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The short of it is that Russia is changing in the time represented by Chekov. The serfs have been freed, and the old aristocratic order is slowly collapsing under the weight of its inaction for so long. Lopakhin, as a former serf who is seeking to become a landowner and man of prestige, is trying to force the economic shift to happen. While it comes across as crass to the richer characters, his behavior is undoubtedly representative of the new order. Meanwhile, Trophimov, an intellectual, wants more from Russia. He believes it can reform and strengthen, yet another voice of a new age to come. The central metaphor of the orchard, which is felled in the final act, illustrates that an old world is dying and a new is being born.