The Bible


  1. ^ Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1. 
  2. ^ "Best selling book of non-fiction". 
  3. ^
  4. ^ "The Good Book Business". 
  5. ^ "The battle of the books". The Economist. 22 December 2007. 
  6. ^ Ash, Russell (2001). Top 10 of Everything 2002. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7894-8043-3. 
  7. ^ "The Tanakh". American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  8. ^ Pilant, Benyamin. "Jewish Bible". Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  9. ^ "Bible - The Tanakh - The Jewish Bible". Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  10. ^ "The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary". Chabad-Lubavitch Media Center. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  11. ^ a b "Hebrew Bible - Jewish sacred writings". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  12. ^ Bible Hub – The NT generally uses 1124 (graphḗ) for the Hebrew Scriptures (the OT) – but see also 2 Tim 3:16 and 2 Pet 3:16. 1124 (graphḗ) was used for the Hebrew Scriptures as early as Aristeas (about 130 bc; so MM)
  13. ^ "Where did the chapter and verse numbers of the Bible originate?". CA. 
  14. ^ Davies, Philip R. (2008). Memories of ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-664-23288-7. 
  15. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "bible". Online Etymology Dictionary
  16. ^ "The Catholic Encyclopedia". 1907. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  17. ^ Biblion, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus.
  18. ^ a b Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Nashville: Broadman, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7.
  19. ^ "From Hebrew Bible to Christian Bible" by Mark Hamilton on PBS's site From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians.
  20. ^ etymology of the word "Bible".
  21. ^ Bruce, Frederick (1988). The Canon of Scripture. Downers Grove, Illinois, U.S.: IVP Academic. p. 214. ISBN 083081258X. 
  22. ^ Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1. 
  23. ^ Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1. 
  24. ^ Lim, Timothy H. (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 41. 
  25. ^ Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1. 
  26. ^ a b Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 23, 37. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1. 
  27. ^ A 7th-century fragment containing the Song of the Sea (Exodus 13:19–16:1) is one of the few surviving texts from the "silent era" of Hebrew biblical texts between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Aleppo Codex. See "Rare scroll fragment to be unveiled," Jerusalem Post, May 21, 2007.
  28. ^ [1] The Restored New Testament: A New Translation with Commentary, Including the Gnostic Gospels Thomas, Mary, and Judas by Willis Barnstone – W. W. Norton & Company – page 647
  29. ^ [2] The Torah: Portion by Portion By Seymour Rossel – Torah Aura Productions, 2007, p. 355
  30. ^ Mordecai Kaplan 1934 Judaism as a Civilization MacMillan Press
  31. ^ Elliot N. Dorff 1979 Conservative Judaism: Our Ancestors to Our Descendants. United Synagogue. p. 98–99 (114–115 in 1978 edition)
  32. ^ Milton Steinberg 1947 Basic Judaism Harcourt Brace, p. 27–28 ISBN 0-15-610698-1
  33. ^ Gilbert Rosenthal 1973 Four paths to One God Bloch Publishing pp. 116–128, 180–192, 238–242
  34. ^ 1Kings.18:24;1Kings.18:37–39 9
  35. ^ George Savran "I and II Kings" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Each king is judged either good or bad in black-and-white terms, according to whether or not he "did right" or "did evil" in the sight of the Lord. This evaluation is not reflective of the well-being of the nation, of the king's success or failure in war, or of the moral climate of the times, but rather the state of cultic worship during his reign. Those kings who shun idolatry and enact religious reforms are singled out for praise, and those who encourage pagan practices are denounced." 146
  36. ^ Yehezkel Kaufmann "Israel In Canaan" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "The fight against Baal was initiated by the prophets" 54
  37. ^ Yehezkel Kaufmann "The Age of Prophecy" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "The immediate occasion of the rise of the new prophecy was the political and social ruin caused by the wars with Israel's northerly neighbor, Aram, which continued for more than a century. They raged intensely during the reign of Ahab, and did not end until the time of Jeroboam II (784–744). While the nation as a whole was impoverished, a few – apparently of the royal officialdom – grew wealthy as a result of the national calamity. Many of the people were compelled to sell their houses and lands, with the result that a sharp social cleavage arose: on the one hand a mass of propertyless indigents, on the other a small circle of the rich. A series of disasters struck the nation – drought, famine, plagues, death and captivity (Amos 4: 6–11), but the greatest disaster of all was the social disintegration due to the cleavage between the poor masses and the wealthy, dissolute upper class. The decay affected both Judah and Israel ... High minded men were appalled at this development. Was this the people whom YHWH had brought out of Egypt, to whom He had given the land and a law of justice and right? it seemed as if the land was about to be inherited by the rich, who would squander its substance in drunken revelry. it was this dissolution that brought the prophetic denunciations to white heat." 57–58
  38. ^ Abraham Joshua Heschel 1955 The Prophets Harper and Row: "What manner of man is the prophet? A student of philosophy who runs from the discourses of the great metaphysicians to the orations of the prophets may feel as if he were going from the realm of the sublime to an area of trivialities. Instead of dealing with the timeless issues of being and becoming, of matter and form, of definitions and demonstrations, he is thrown into orations about widows and orphans, about the corruption of judges and affairs of the market place. Instead of showing us a way through the elegant mansions of the mind, the prophets take us to the slums. The world is a proud place, full of beauty, but the prophets are scandalized, and rave as if the whole world were a slum. They make much ado about paltry things, lavishing excessive language upon trifling subjects. What if somewhere in ancient Palestine poor people have not been treated properly by the rich? .... Indeed, the sorts of crimes and even the amount of delinquency that fill the prophets of Israel with dismay do not go beyond that which we regard as normal, as typical ingredients of social dynamics. To us a single act of injustice – cheating in business, exploitation of the poor – is slight; to the prophets, a disaster. To us an injustice is injurious to the welfare of the people; to the prophets it is a deathblow to existence; to us an episode; to them, a catastrophe, a threat to the world." 3–4
  39. ^ Joel Rosenberg "I and II Samuel" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Samuel is thus a work of national self-criticism. It recognizes that Israel would not have survived, either politically or culturally, without the steadying presence of a dynastic royal house. But it makes both that house and its subjects answerable to firm standards of prophetic justice — not those of cult prophets or professional ecstatics, but of morally upright prophetic leaders in the tradition of Moses, Joshua, Deborah, Gideon, and others ..." 141
  40. ^ Neusner, Jacob, The Talmud Law, Theology, Narrative: A Sourcebook. University Press of America, 2005
  41. ^ Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible in its Context. Oxford University Press. 2009; p. 5
  42. ^ [3] The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 7 of 9: Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate) translated by Michael L. Rodkinson, first published 1918 – published 2008 by Forgotten Books, p. 53
  43. ^ [4] Ketuvim כְּתוּבִים 30 July 2008
  44. ^ Coogan, Michael. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context. Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 5
  45. ^ Henshaw, T. The Writings: The Third Division of the Old Testament Canon. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1963, pp. 16–17
  46. ^ Lightfoot, Neil R. How We Got the Bible, 3rd edition, rev. and expanded. Baker Book House Company. 2003, pp. 154–155.
  47. ^ Henshaw, T. The Writings: The Third Division of the Old Testament Canon. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1963, p. 17
  48. ^ Sir Godfrey Driver. "Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible." Web: 30 November 2009
  49. ^ Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions of the West (2004), Anchor Bible Reference Library, Alan F. Segal, p. 363
  50. ^ Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, La Bible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien (Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p.111
  51. ^ a b "[...] die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang [...] [von den] Rabbinen zuerst gerühmt (..) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistische Irrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab." Verband der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff
  52. ^ a b Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to the Septuagint. Paternoster Press. ISBN 1-84227-061-3. 
  53. ^ Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint
  54. ^ Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, "Books of the Septuagint," (Accessed 2006.9.5).
  55. ^ "The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in places from the text crystallized by the Masorah." "Bible Translations – The Septuagint". Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  56. ^ "Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] [...] In course of time it came to be the canonical Greek Bible [...] It became part of the Bible of the Christian Church.""Bible Translations – The Septuagint". Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  57. ^ Mishnah Sotah (7:2–4 and 8:1), among many others, discusses the sacredness of Hebrew, as opposed to Aramaic or Greek. This is comparable to the authority claimed for the original Arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching. As a result of this teaching, translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only.
  58. ^ Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans, 1995.
  59. ^ "NETS: Electronic Edition". 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  60. ^ a b This article incorporates text from the 1903 Encyclopaedia Biblica article "TEXT AND VERSIONS", a publication now in the public domain.
  61. ^ a b Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004.
  62. ^ Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research ISBN 0-8028-6091-5. — The current standard introduction on the NT & LXX.
  63. ^ The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.
  64. ^ Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεῖα (Basileia).
  65. ^ That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ.
  66. ^ also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.
  67. ^ Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the LXX.
  68. ^ Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias," which opens the book.
  69. ^ Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon
  70. ^ The Masoretic Text and the Dead Sea Scrolls – Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  71. ^ "Dead Sea Scrolls" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-06. 
  72. ^ Council of Trent: Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis "Decree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures", from the Council's fourth session, of 4 April 1546: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, The Fourth Session, Celebrated on the eighth day of the month of April, in the year 1546, English translation by James Waterworth (London 1848).
  73. ^ The Council of Trent confirmed the identical list/canon of sacred scriptures already anciently approved by the Synod of Hippo (Synod of 393), Councils of Carthage (The Council of Carthage, 28 August 397), and Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel), Session 11, 4 February 1442 —[Bull of union with the Copts] seventh paragraph down.
  74. ^ "Paragraph 120". Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  75. ^ Canon of Trent: List of the Canonical Scriptures.

    But if anyone receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin vulgate edition; and knowingly and deliberately contemn the traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema.

    Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis, Council of Trent, 8 April 1546
  76. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  77. ^ The Book of Enoch – The Reluctant Messenger. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  78. ^ Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G.W. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: P–Sh page 411, ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 (2004)
  79. ^ Wright, N.T. The Last Word:, page 3 HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-087261-6 / 9780060872618
  80. ^ a b Wright, N.T. The Last Word: Scripture and the Authority of God—Getting Beyond the Bible Wars. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-087261-6 / 9780060872618
  81. ^ [5] What the Bible is All About Visual Edition by Henrietta C. Mears – Gospel Light Publications, Feb 5, 2007 – page 438-439
  82. ^ [6] Inspiration and Inerrancy: A History and a Defense,Henry Preserved Smith – R. Clarke, 1893, p. 343
  83. ^ Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland The text of the New Testament: an introduction to the critical 1995 p52 "The New Testament was written in Koine Greek, the Greek of daily conversation. The fact that from the first all the New Testament writings were written in Greek is conclusively demonstrated by their citations from the Old Testament ..."
  84. ^ Archibald Macbride Hunter Introducing the New Testament 1972 p9 "How came the twenty-seven books of the New Testament to be gathered together and made authoritative Christian scripture? 1. All the New Testament books were originally written in Greek. On the face of it this may surprise us."
  85. ^ Wenham The elements of New Testament Greek -p xxv Jeremy Duff, John William Wenham – 2005 "This is the language of the New Testament. By the time of Jesus the Romans had become the dominant military and political force, but the Greek language remained the 'common language' of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond, and Greek ..."
  86. ^ Daniel B. Wallace Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament 1997
  87. ^ Henry St. John Thackeray Grammar of New Testament Greek ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Blass, 1911 "By far the most predominant element in the language of the New Testament is the Greek of common speech which was disseminated in the East by the Macedonian conquest, in the form which it had gradually assumed under the wider development ..."
  88. ^ David E. Aune The Blackwell companion to the New Testament 2009 p61 CHAPTER 4 New Testament Greek Christophe Rico "In this short overview of the Greek language of the New Testament we will focus on those topics that are of greatest importance for the average reader, that is, those with important ..."
  89. ^ [7] Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament: An Introduction for English Readers by Keith Elliott, Ian Moir – Continuum International Publishing Group, Nov 20, 2000, p. 9
  90. ^ [8] God-Trail of Evidence: The Quest for the Truth By Dwo – iUniverse, Jul 12, 2011, p. 152. ISBN 978-1-4502-9429-4 {sc}
  91. ^ [9] Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Frank K. Flinn, Infobase Publishing, Jan 1, 2007, p. 103
  92. ^ "The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church". Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-19. 
  93. ^ Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 49–50. 
  94. ^ Rice, John R. - Our God-Breathed Book: The Bible - ISBN 0-87398-628-8, Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1969, pp 68-88.
  95. ^ "Beyond Biblical Literalism and Inerrancy: Conservative Protestants and the Hermeneutic Interpretation of Scripture", John Bartkowski, Sociology of Religion, 57, 1996.
  96. ^ Philo of Alexandria, De vita Moysis 3.23.
  97. ^ Josephus, Contra Apion 1.8.
  98. ^ "Basis for belief of Inspiration Biblegateway". Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  99. ^ Norman L. Geisler, William E. Nix. A General Introduction to the Bible. Moody Publishers, 1986, p.86. ISBN 0-8024-2916-5
  100. ^ For example, see Leroy Zuck, Roy B. Zuck. Basic Bible Interpretation. Chariot Victor Pub, 1991,p.68. ISBN 0-89693-819-0
  101. ^ Roy B. Zuck, Donald Campbell. Basic Bible Interpretation. Victor, 2002. ISBN 0-7814-3877-2
  102. ^ Norman L. Geisler. Inerrancy. Zondervan, 1980, p.294. ISBN 0-310-39281-0
  103. ^ International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (1978). "The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy" (PDF). International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. 
  104. ^ "Ruckman's belief in advanced revelations in the KJV". Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  105. ^ [10] (Figures correct as of 2014.)
  106. ^ Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1. 
  107. ^ Becoming Rasta: Origins of Rastafari Identity in Jamaica – Page 171, Charles Price – 2009
  108. ^ Unitarian Universalism – Page 42, Zondervan Publishing, 2009
  109. ^ "Expondo Os Erros Da Sociedade Bíblica Internacional". 2000. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 
  110. ^ [11] In the Beginning: Hijacking of the Religion of God, Volume 1 by Sami M. El-Soudani, Nabawia J. El-Soudani – Xlibris Corporation, January 1, 2009, p. 65
  111. ^ [12] Ten More Amazing Discoveries By George Potter, Cedar Fort, October 1, 2005, p. 121
  112. ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Neil Silberman. The Bible Unearthed
  113. ^ Dever, William. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from?
  114. ^ a b Putnam A.M., Geo. Haven. Books and Their Makers During The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. New York: Hillary House, 1962. Print.
  115. ^ De Hamel, 45
  116. ^ De Hamel, 57
  117. ^ De Hamel, 65
  118. ^ De Hamel, Christopher. Medieval Craftsmen: Scribes and Illuminations. Buffalo: University of Toronto, 1992. p. 60.

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