12. In the character of the Crystal Merchant, the author Paulo Coelho creates a character foil for Santiago. A foil
is a character whose behavior and values contrast with those of another character in order to highlight the unique
personality of that character (usually the main character, or protagonist). Foils are useful to writers in many ways.
For example, they can be used to establish the personality traits of a character, or they can be used as a way to
force a character to a deeper level of self-understanding that precedes character change or character development.
Compare and contrast Santiago with the Crystal Merchant by examining how each one approaches the possibility
of expanding the shop’s business, first by building a display case and second by selling tea to customers. How is
Santiago a foil of the shop’s owner?