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The reader can assume that the sound heart and the deformed conscience refer to specific characters. I think that one characteristic of Huck is that he has a good (sound) heart, and the heart he has is one that has him helping Jim, among others. The deformed conscience could refer to a specific character (such as Pap) or it could even refer to the deformed conscience of those who prefer slavery as a way of treating people. As noted in the quote, the deformed conscience loses.