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A foil is a character who contrasts with another character, usually the protagonist, and, in so doing, highlights various facets of the main character's personality.
Although his presence in the story is brief, Buck Grangerford’s importance lies in his similarity to Huck. They are approximately the same age, have similar names, and take to each another right away. And for good reason. Buck is raised by a wealthy and allegedly aristocratic family, whereas Huck comes from a poor upbringing by an alcoholic and abusive dad. The Grangerfords should be refined and well educated, but in fact they’re feuding with another family for no clear reason. This wouldn't be so bad if people didn’t die from their ridiculous argument. The point this foil makes is that upbringing, class, and status aren’t everything. Also, here we see Twain's clear perspective that some of the social beliefs of the South (like the notion that slavery is somehow OK) are asinine.