Chemistry: The Central Science (13th Edition)

Published by Prentice Hall
ISBN 10: 0321910419
ISBN 13: 978-0-32191-041-7

Chapter 6 - Electronic Structure of Atoms - Additional Exercises: 6.102d

Answer

The condensed electron configuration of $Sb$ is $$Sb:[Kr]4d^{10}5s^25p^3$$ There are 3 unpaired electrons.

Work Step by Step

1) The nearest noble gas of lower atomic number of $Sb$ is $Kr$. 2) Looking the periodic table, the atomic number of $Sb$ is 51, which means it has 51 electrons. The last row ends with the atomic number 36, so $Sb$ has 36 inner-shell electrons. That leaves it with 15 outer-shell electrons. $Sb$ belongs to the 5th row, so its outer shell is the 5th shell. 3) These 15 outer-shell electrons are distributed as follows: - The first two go to the $5s$ subshell. - The next 10 go to the $4d$ subshell. - The last 3 go to the $5p$ subshell. Therefore, the condensed electron configuration of $Sb$ is $$Sb:[Kr]4d^{10}5s^25p^3$$ 4) All the inner shells, the $5s$ subshell, and the $4d$ subshell are completely filled, so all of their electrons are paired. There are 3 electrons in subshell $5p$, and subshell $5p$ has 3 orbitals. According to Hund's rule, these 3 electrons each occupies a different orbital. In the end, there are 3 one-electron orbitals. Therefore, there are 3 unpaired electrons.
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