DNA is inherited after faithful, but not perfect, copying. This leads to most descendants of an organism sharing its well-adapted alleles. However, the mutations which arise occasionally can lead to changes in protein sequence and, thus, function. This is moderated by the fact that some mutations fall outside genes or in introns and that others are silent. A few of these mutations which alter protein sequence and function are beneficial and, thus, increase in frequency as a result of natural selection. Some will be detrimental and will consequently decrease in frequency.
Work Step by Step
This question is asking you to see the connections between evolution/natural selection and the material in this chapter about transcription and translation. Think about how genotype relates to DNA and RNA and how the proteins produced based on that creates the phenotypes on which natural selection acts. Recall that mutations are the original (and only) source of new evolutionary traits.