Biology (11th Edition)

Published by McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN 10: 1-25918-813-2
ISBN 13: 978-1-25918-813-8

Chapter 23 - Systematics, Phylogenies, and Comparative Biology - Review Questions - Synthesize: 5


No, these are not homologous since they evolved separately, convergently. They are homologous as vertebrate forelimbs, which are inherited from a common ancestor, but not as wings.

Work Step by Step

Consider first how these might be convergent: as wings, since there are non-flying relatives between the bats, birds, and pterosaurs. Then ask yourself if they might be homologous in some sense--all of these creatures are vertebrates, and the questions says that all three have forelimbs modified to be wings.
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