a. Law X will reduce national income
Work Step by Step
Positive statements are claims that attempt to describe the world as it is. They attempt to make a factual statement about the world. Therefore, a is the only example of a positive statement, because it attempts to describe the effect of Law X on national income. On the other hand, the other three statements are normative and provide a value judgment that gives an opinion on how the world ought to be. For example, in c, the statement holds that Congress ought to pass law X.