Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

References

  1. ^ Simpson, James. "A Note on Middle English Meter." In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (A New Verse Translation) by Simon Armitage. Norton, 2008. p. 18.
  2. ^ a b c The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 8th ed. Vol. B. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Co., 2006. pp. 19–21 and 160–161. ISBN 0-393-92833-0
  3. ^ a b "Web Resources for Pearl-poet Study: A Vetted Selection". Univ. of Calgary. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  4. ^ a b For reasons not entirely understood, the Celts used the phrase "a year and a day", to refer to exactly one year. See for example W. J. McGee's "The Beginning of Mathematics." American Anthropologist. (Oct 1899) Vol. 1 Iss. 4 pp. 646–674.
  5. ^ Masters of British Literature Volume A. Pearson Longman. 2008. pp. 200–201. ISBN 9780321333995. 
  6. ^ "Pearl: Introduction". Medieval Institute Publications, Inc. 2001. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  7. ^ Turville-Petre, Thorlac. The Alliterative Revival. Woodbridge: Brewer etc., 1977. pp. 126–129. ISBN 0-85991-019-9
  8. ^ Burrow, J. Ricardian Poetry. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1971. ISBN 0-7100-7031-4 pp. 4–5
  9. ^ "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Medieval Period, Vol. 1., ed. Joseph Black, et al. Toronto: Broadview Press, Introduction, p. 235. ISBN 1-55111-609-X
  10. ^ a b Nelles, William. "The Pearl-Poet". Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition Database: MagillOnLiterature Plus, 1958.
  11. ^ a b Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Edited J.R.R. Tolkien and E.V. Gordon, revised Norman Davis, 1925. introduction, xv. ASIN B000IPU84U
  12. ^ Peterson, Clifford J (1974). "The Pearl-Poet and John Massey of Cotton, Cheshire". The Review of English Studies, New Series 25 (99): 257–266. doi:10.1093/res/xxv.99.257. 
  13. ^ a b "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". Representative Poetry Online. University of Toronto Libraries. 1 August 2002. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  14. ^ a b c Brewer, Elisabeth. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1992. ISBN 0-85991-359-7
  15. ^ a b Friedman, Albert B. "Morgan le Fay in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." Speculum. Vol. 35, No. 2 (Apr 1960) pp. 260–274
  16. ^ Hahn, Thomas. "The Greene Knight". In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-879288-59-1. Full text: The Greene Knight
  17. ^ Hahn, Thomas. "The Turke and Sir Gawain". In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-879288-59-1. Online: The Turke and Sir Gawain.
  18. ^ Hahn, Thomas. "The Carle of Carlisle", in Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-879288-59-1. Online: The Carle of Carlisle.
  19. ^ Kittredge, George Lyman. A Study of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Harvard University Press, 1960. p. 76. ASIN B0006AWBXS
  20. ^ Kittredge, p. 83
  21. ^ Burrow, J.A. A Reading of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. London: Kegan Paul Ltd., 1965. p. 162. ISBN 0-7100-8695-4
  22. ^ a b c d Burnley, J.D. (1973). "The Hunting Scenes in 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight' ".". The Yearbook of English Studies 3: 1–9. doi:10.2307/3506850. 
  23. ^ The "hyndez" (hinds) first described in the poem are probably from red deer, a species with large antlers like the American elk, while the subsequent "dos and of oþer dere" (does and other deer) likely refer to the smaller fallow deer. (Ong, Walter J. "The Green Knight's Harts and Bucks". Modern Language Notes. (December 1950) 65.8 pp. 536–539.)
  24. ^ Cawley, A. C. 'Pearl, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight':"...the Green Knight, alias Sir Bertilak, is an immensely vital person who is closely associated with the life of nature: his greenness, the birds and flies of his decorative embroidery, his beard as great as a bush, the holly branch in his hand, the energy he displays as a huntsman-all give him kinship with the physical world outside the castle."
  25. ^ Woods, William F. "Nature and the Inner Man in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". The Chaucer Review, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2002, pp. 209–227.
  26. ^ Green, Richard Hamilton. "Gawain's Shield and the Quest for Perfection". ELH. (June 1962) 29.2 pp. 121–139.
  27. ^ This interpretation was first advanced by John Speirs in Scrutiny, vol.XVI, iv, 1949 (incorporated in his Medieval English Poetry: The Non-Chaucerian Tradition, rev.ed. 1962. Similar interpretations were later offered by Francis Berry in The Pelican Guide to English Literature: The Age of Chaucer, 1954; Goldhurst, "The Green and the Gold: The Major Theme of Sit Gawain and the Green Knight, College English, Nov. 1958; A.C, Spearing, The Gawain-Poet: A Critical Study, 1970; W. A. Davenport, The Art of the Gawain-Poet, 1978; J. Tambling, "A More Powerful Life: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", Haltwhistle Quarterly 9, 1981; and K. Sagar, "Sir Gawain and the Green Girdle", in his Literature and the Crime Against Nature, 2005.
  28. ^ a b Goodlad, Lauren M. (1987) "The Gamnes of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Vol. 18, Article 4.
  29. ^ Harwood, Britton J (1991). "Gawain and the Gift". PMLA 106 (3): 483–99. doi:10.2307/462781. 
  30. ^ a b c Clark, S. L.; Wasserman, Julian N. (1986). "The Passing of the Seasons and the Apocalyptic in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". South Central Review 3 (1): 5–22. doi:10.2307/3189122. 
  31. ^ Robertson, D.W. Jr. "Why the Devil Wears Green". Modern Language Notes. (November 1954) 69.7 pp. 470–472.
  32. ^ Chamberlin, Vernon A. "Symbolic Green: A Time-Honored Characterizing Device in Spanish Literature". Hispania. (March 1968) 51.1 pp. 29–37
  33. ^ Goldhurst, William. "The Green and the Gold: The Major Theme of Gawain and the Green Knight". College English. (November 1958) 20.2 pp. 61–65. doi:10.2307/372161
  34. ^ Williams, Margaret. The Pearl Poet, His Complete Works. Random House, 1967. ASIN B0006BQEJY
  35. ^ Lewis, John S. "Gawain and the Green Knight". College English. (October 1959) 21.1 pp. 50–51
  36. ^ a b c d e Besserman, Lawrence. "The Idea of the Green Knight". ELH. (Summer 1986) 53.2 The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 219–239.
  37. ^ Hahn, Thomas. "The Greene Knight". In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000 p. 314. ISBN 1-879288-59-1
  38. ^ Hahn, Thomas. "King Arthur and King Cornwall". In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. p. 427. ISBN 1-879288-59-1
  39. ^ a b Lasater, Alice E. Spain to England: A Comparative Study of Arabic, European, and English Literature of the Middle Ages. University Press of Mississippi, 1974. ISBN 0-87805-056-6
  40. ^ Rix, Michael M. "A Re-Examination of the Castleton Garlanding". Folklore. (June 1953) 64.2 pp. 342–344
  41. ^ Buchanan, Alice (June 1932). "The Irish Framework of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". PLMA 47 (2): 315–338. doi:10.2307/457878. 
  42. ^ . Friedman, Albert B. Morgan le Fay in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Medieval Academy of America. Speculum, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1960
  43. ^ Berger, Sidney E. "Gawain's Departure from the Peregrinatio". Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 1985.
  44. ^ Burrow, J.A. A Reading of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. London: Kegan Paul Ltd., 1965
  45. ^ The poem contains the first recorded use of the word pentangle in English (Oxford English Dictionary Online).
  46. ^ Arthur, Ross G. Medieval Sign Theory and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987. pp. 22, 26. ISBN 0-8020-5717-9
  47. ^ LaBossière, Camille R., and Gladson, Jerry A. "Solomon", in A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1992 p. 722.
  48. ^ a b Hulbert, J. R. "Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyzt (Concluded)". Modern Philology. (April 1916) 13.12 pp. 689–730.
  49. ^ Jackson, I. "Sir Gawain's Coat of Arms." The Modern Language Review. (January 1920) 15.1 pp. 77–79.
  50. ^ Arthur, pp. 33–34.
  51. ^ a b Arthur, p. 34.
  52. ^ Arthur, p. 35.
  53. ^ Cooke, Jessica (1998). "The Lady's 'Blushing' Ring in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". The Review of English Studies 49 (193): 1–8. doi:10.1093/res/49.193.1. 
  54. ^ Andrew, Malcolm; Ronald Waldron (1996). The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. p. 273. ISBN 0-85989-514-9. 
  55. ^ Borroff, Marie (2001). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Patience, Pearl: Verse Translations. New York: Norton. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-393-97658-8. 
  56. ^ Cooke, "The Lady's 'Blushing,'" 2,5.
  57. ^ Howard, Donald R. "Structure and Symmetry in Sir Gawain". Speculum. (July 1964) 39.3 pp. 425–433.
  58. ^ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Book 2, Stanza 27.
  59. ^ Kittredge, p. 93.
  60. ^ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Book 2, Stanza 28.
  61. ^ Mills, M. "Christian Significance and Roman Tradition in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." Critical Studies of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Eds. Donald R. Howard & Christian Zacher. 2nd ed. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1970. 85–105.
  62. ^ a b Robertson, Michael. "Stanzaic Symmetry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". Speculum. (October 1982) 57.4 pp. 779–785.
  63. ^ Reichardt, Paul F. (1984). "Gawain and the Image of the Wound". PMLA 99 (2): 154–61. doi:10.2307/462158. JSTOR 462158. 
  64. ^ Arthur, pp. 121–123.
  65. ^ Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism, p. 186. ISBN 0-691-01298-9
  66. ^ a b Markman, Alan M. "The Meaning of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". PMLA. (September 1957) 72.4 pp. 574–586
  67. ^ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, second edition. Ed. J.R.R. Tolkien and E.V. Gordon, 1925, note to lines 2514ff. ASIN B000IPU84U
  68. ^ The Norton Anthology of English Literature, eighth edition, Vol. BEd Stephen Greenblatt. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Co., 2006, p. 213 (footnote). ISBN 0-393-92833-0
  69. ^ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, line 2529.
  70. ^ a b Cox, Catherine. "Genesis and Gender in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", The Chaucer Review. (2001) 35.4 pp. 379–390. Retrieved on 22 September 2007.
  71. ^ Pugh, Tison. "Gawain and the Godgames". Christianity and Literature. (2002) 51.4 pp. 526–551. Retrieved on 30 September 2007, from Saint Louis University
  72. ^ Mills, David (1970). "The Rhetorical Function of Gawain's Antifeminism?". Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 71: 635–4. 
  73. ^ Heng, Geraldine (1991). "Feminine Knots and the Other Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". PMLA 106 (3): 500–514. doi:10.2307/462782. 
  74. ^ Burns, E. Jane. "Courtly Love: Who Needs It? Recent Feminist Work in the Medieval Tradition". Signs. (Autumn 2001) 27.1 pp. 23–57. Retrieved on 7 September 2007 from JSTOR
  75. ^ a b Burns, p. 24
  76. ^ Rowley, Sharon M (2003). "Textual Studies, Feminism, and Performance in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". The Chaucer Review 38: 158–177. doi:10.1353/cr.2003.0022. 
  77. ^ Rowley, p. 161
  78. ^ Cox, p. 378
  79. ^ a b Cox, p. 379
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  81. ^ Lander, Bonnie (2007). "The Convention of Innocence and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight's Literary Sophisticates". Parergon 24 (1): 41–66. doi:10.1353/pgn.2007.0046. 
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  83. ^ Twomey, Michael. "The Holy Head and the Wirral". Travels With Sir Gawain. Ithaca Univ. Retrieved 2007-06-21. 
  84. ^ Twomey, Michael. "Hautdesert". Travels With Sir Gawain. Ithaca Univ. Retrieved 2007-06-21. 
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  88. ^ a b Dinshaw, Carolyn. "A Kiss Is Just a Kiss: Heterosexuality and Its Consolations in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." Diacritics. Vol. 24 No. 2/3 (Summer 1994) pp. 204–226
  89. ^ a b Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, ed. Marie Borroff and Laura Howes, New York: Norton, 2010, pg. vii
  90. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1980). Christopher Tolkien, ed. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo. Random House. ISBN 978-0-345-27760-2. 
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  93. ^ Baragona, Alan (2012). "Rev. of Howes, Borroff, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". Journal of English and Germanic Philology 111 (4): 535–38. doi:10.5406/jenglgermphil.111.4.0535. 
  94. ^ Hirsch, Edward (16 December 2007). "A Stranger in Camelot". The New York Times. p. 7.1. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
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