Rumi: Poems and Prose

References

  1. ^ a b c Ritter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. Excerpt: "known by the sobriquet Mewlānā, persian poet and founder of the Mewlewiyya order of dervishes"
  2. ^ William Harmless, Mystics, (Oxford University Press, 2008), 167.
  3. ^ a b c Annemarie Schimmel, "I Am Wind, You Are Fire," p. 11. She refers to a 1989 article by the German scholar, Fritz Meier:

    Tajiks and Persian admirers still prefer to call Jalaluddin 'Balkhi' because his family lived in Balkh, current day in Afghanistan before migrating westward. However, their home was not in the actual city of Balkh, since the mid-eighth century a center of Muslim culture in (Greater) Khorasan (Iran and Central Asia). Rather, as the Swiss scholar Fritz Meier has shown, it was in the small town of Wakhsh north of the Oxus that Baha'uddin Walad, Jalaluddin's father, lived and worked as a jurist and preacher with mystical inclinations. Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, 2000, pp. 47–49.

    Professor Lewis has devoted two pages of his book to the topic of Wakhsh, which he states has been identified with the medieval town of Lêwkand (or Lâvakand) or Sangtude, which is about 65 kilometers southeast of Dushanbe, the capital of present-day Tajikistan. He says it is on the east bank of the Vakhshâb river, a major tributary that joins the Amu Daryâ river (also called Jayhun, and named the Oxus by the Greeks). He further states: "Bahâ al-Din may have been born in Balkh, but at least between June 1204 and 1210 (Shavvâl 600 and 607), during which time Rumi was born, Bahâ al-Din resided in a house in Vakhsh (Bah 2:143 [= Bahâ' uddîn Walad's] book, "Ma`ârif."). Vakhsh, rather than Balkh was the permanent base of Bahâ al-Din and his family until Rumi was around five years old (mei 16–35) [= from a book in German by the scholar Fritz Meier—note inserted here]. At that time, in about the year 1212 (A.H. 608–609), the Valads moved to Samarqand (Fih 333; Mei 29–30, 36) [= reference to Rumi's "Discourses" and to Fritz Meier's book—note inserted here], leaving behind Baâ al-Din's mother, who must have been at least seventy-five years old."
  4. ^ a b c "UNESCO: 800th Anniversary of the Birth of Mawlana Jalal-ud-Din Balkhi-Rumi". UNESCO. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2014. The prominent Persian language poet, thinker and spiritual master, Mevlana Celaleddin Belhi-Rumi was born in 1207 in Balkh, presently Afghanistan. 
  5. ^ a b c "UNESCO. Executive Board; 175th; UNESCO Medal in honour of Mawlana Jalal-ud-Din Balkhi-Rumi; 2006" (PDF). UNESDOC - UNESCO Documents and Publications. October 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c H. Ritter, 1991, DJALĀL al-DĪN RŪMĪ, The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Volume II: C-G), 393.
  7. ^ C. E. Bosworth, 1988, BALḴ, city and province in northern Afghanistan, Encyclopaedia Iranica: Later, suzerainty over it passed to the Qarā Ḵetāy of Transoxania, until in 594/1198 the Ghurid Bahāʾ-al-Dīn Sām b. Moḥammad of Bāmīān occupied it when its Turkish governor, a vassal of the Qarā Ḵetāy, had died, and incorporated it briefly into the Ghurid empire. Yet within a decade, Balḵ and Termeḏ passed to the Ghurids’ rival, the Ḵᵛārazmšāh ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Moḥammad, who seized it in 602/1205-06 and appointed as governor there a Turkish commander, Čaḡri or Jaʿfar. In summer of 617/1220 the Mongols first appeared at Balḵ.
  8. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, "Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The life, Teaching and poetry of Jalal Al-Din Rumi", Oneworld Publication Limited, 2008 p. 9: "How is that a Pesian boy born almost eight hundred years ago in Khorasan, the northeastern province of greater Iran, in a region that we identify today as n Asia, but was considered in those days as part of the greater Persian cultural sphere, wound up in central Anatolia on the receding edge of the Byzantine cultural sphere"
  9. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, "The Mystery of Numbers",Oxford University Press, Apr 7, 1994. p. 51: "These examples are taken from the Persian mystic Rumi's work, not from Chinese, but they express the yang-yin [sic] relationship with perfect lucidity."
  10. ^ a b Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Art and Spirituality", Suny Press, 1987. p. 115: "Jalal al-Din was born in a major center of Persian culture, Balkh, from Persian speaking parents, and is the product of that Islamic Persian culture which in the 7th/13th century dominated the 'whole of the eastern lands of Islam and to which present day Persians as well as Turks, Afghans, Central Asian Muslims and the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent are heir. It is precisely in this world that the sun of his spiritual legacy has shone most brillianty during the past seven centuries. The father of Jalal al-Din, Muhammad ibn Husayn Khatibi, known as Baha al-Din Walad and entitled Sultan al-'ulama', was an outstanding Sufi in Balkh connected to the spiritual lineage of Najm al-Din Kubra."
  11. ^ a b Charles Haviland (2007-09-30). "The roar of Rumi — 800 years on". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  12. ^ "Why is Rumi the best-selling poet in the US, among Muslims?". BBC Culture. 2014-04-14. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  13. ^ "Rumi Rules". Time. 2002-09-29. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  14. ^ Δέδες, Δ. 1993. Ποιήματα του Μαυλανά Ρουμή. Τα Ιστορικά 10.18-19: 3-22.
  15. ^ Meyer, G. 1895. Die griechischen Verse in Rabâbnâma. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 4: 401-411.
  16. ^ http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~opoudjis/Play/rumiwalad.html
  17. ^ a b Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 193: "Rumi's mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, enough Turkish and Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse".
  18. ^ a b Franklin Lewis: "On the question of Rumi's multilingualism (pages 315–17), we may still say that he spoke and wrote in Persian as a native language, wrote and conversed in Arabic as a learned "foreign" language and could at least get by at the market in Turkish and Greek (although some wildly extravagant claims have been made about his command of Attic Greek, or his native tongue being Turkish") (Lewis 2008:xxi). (Franklin Lewis, "Rumi, "Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi", One World Publication Limited, 2008). Franklin also points out that: ”Living among Turks, Rumi also picked up some colloquial Turkish.”(Franklin Lewis, "Rumi, "Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi", One World Publication Limited, 2008, p. 315). He also mentions Rumi composed thirteen lines in Greek (Franklin Lewis, "Rumi, "Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi", One World Publication Limited, 2008, p. 316). On Rumi's son, Sultan Walad, Franklin mentions: “Sultan Valad elsewhere admits that he has little knowledge of Turkish”(Sultan Walad): Franklin Lewis, "Rumi, "Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi", One World Publication Limited, 2008, p. 239) and “Sultan Valad did not feel confident about his command of Turkish”(Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000, p. 240)
  19. ^ Louis Gardet, "Religion and Culture" in the "The Cambridge History of Islam — part VIII: Islamic Society and Civilization” — edited by P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, Cambridge University Press (1977), p. 586: "It is sufficient to mention 'Aziz al-Din Nasafi, Farid al-Din 'Attar and Sa'adi, and above all Jalal al-Din Rumi, whose Mathnawi remains one of the purest literary glories of Persia"
  20. ^ a b C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkmen must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-Dīn Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, whose Mathnawī, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."
  21. ^ Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty © 2012 RFE/RL, Inc. All Rights Reserved. http://www.rferl.org/content/Interview_Many_Americans_Love_RumiBut_They_Prefer_He_Not_Be_Muslim/2122973.html.("Interview: 'Many Americans Love Rumi ... But They Prefer He Not Be Muslim'")([1]) accessed 08-14-2012
  22. ^ "Dîvan-i Kebîr Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī". Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  23. ^ (Franklin Lewis, "Rumi, Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi", One World Publication Limited, 2008)(p. 9):
  24. ^ Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī (Maulana), Ibrahim Gamard, "Rumi and Islam: Selections from His Stories, Poems, and Discourses, Annotated & Explained", SkyLight Paths Publishing, Feb 1, 2004.
  25. ^ a b Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Art and Spirituality", Suny Press, 1987. p. 115: "Jalal al-Din was born in a major center of Persian culture, Balkh, from Persian speaking parents, and is the product of that Islamic Persian culture which in the 7th/13th century dominated the 'whole of the eastern lands of Islam and to which present day Persians as well as Turks, Afghans, Central Asian Muslims and the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistani and the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent are heir. It is precisely in this world that the sun of his spiritual legacy has shone most brilliantly during the past seven centuries. The father of Jalal al-Din, Muhammad ibn Husayn Khatibi, known as Baha al-Din Walad and entitled Sultan al-'ulama', was an outstanding Sufi in Balkh connected to the spiritual lineage of Najm al-Din Kubra."
  26. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, "Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The life, Teaching and poetry of Jalal Al-Din Rumi", Oneworld Publication Limited, 2008 p. 9: "How is that a Persian boy born almost eight hundred years ago in Khorasan, the northeastern province of greater Iran, in a region that we identify today as Central Asia, but was considered in those days as part of the greater Persian cultural sphere, wound up in central Anatolia on the receding edge of the Byzantine cultural sphere"
  27. ^ Maqsood Jafrī, "The gleam of wisdom", Sigma Press, 2003. p. 238: "Rumi has influenced a large number of writers while on the other hand he himself was under the great influence of Sanai and Attar.
  28. ^ A. J. Arberry, "Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam",Courier Dover Publications, Nov 9, 2001. p. 141
  29. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "The Garden of Truth: The Vision and Promise of Sufism, Islam's Mystical Tradition" HarperCollins, Sep 2, 2008. page 130: "Attar has traversed the seven cities of Love, We are still at the turn of one street!"
  30. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, (Rutgers University Press, 2002), 157; "…the Seljuk court at Konya adopted Persian as its official language.".
  31. ^ Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia
  32. ^ Carter Vaughn Findley, “The Turks in World History”, Oxford University Press, Nov 11, 2004. p. 72: Meanwhile, amid the migratory swarm that Turkified Anatolia, the dispersion of learned men from the Persian-speaking east paradoxically made the Seljuks court at Konya a new center for Persian court culture, as exemplified by the great mystical poet Jelaleddin Rumi (1207–73).
  33. ^ Barks, Coleman, Rumi: The Book of Love: Poems of Ecstasy and Longing, HarperCollins, 2005, p. xxv, ISBN 978-0-06-075050-3
  34. ^ Note: Rumi's shrine is now known as the Mevlâna Museum in Turkey
  35. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000.

    How is it that a Persian boy born almost eight hundred years ago in Khorasan, the northeastern province of greater Iran, in a region that we identify today as Central Asia, but was considered in those days as part of the Greater Persian cultural sphere, wound up in Central Anatolia on the receding edge of the Byzantine cultural sphere, in which is now Turkey

  36. ^ a b c d Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). pp. 90–92: "Baha al-Din’s disciples also traced his family lineage to the first caliph, Abu Bakr (Sep 9; Af 7; JNO 457; Dow 213). This probably stems from willful confusion over his paternal great grandmother, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr of Sarakhs, a noted jurist (d. 1090). The most complete genealogy offered for family stretches back only six or seven generations and cannot reach to Abu Bakr, the companion and first caliph of the Prophet, who died two years after the Prophet, in C.E. 634 (FB 5–6 n.3)."
  37. ^ a b c H. Algar, “BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD WALAD“, Encyclopedia Iranica. There is no reference to such descent in the works of Bahāʾ-e Walad and Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn or in the inscriptions on their sarcophagi. The attribution may have arisen from confusion between the caliph and another Abū Bakr, Šams-al-Aʾemma Abū Bakr Saraḵsī (d. 483/1090), the well-known Hanafite jurist, whose daughter, Ferdows Ḵātūn, was the mother of Aḥmad Ḵaṭīb, Bahāʾ-e Walad’s grandfather (see Forūzānfar, Resāla, p. 6). Tradition also links Bahāʾ-e Walad’s lineage to the Ḵᵛārazmšāh dynasty. His mother is said to have been the daughter of ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Ḵārazmšāh (d. 596/1200), but this appears to be excluded for chronological reasons (Forūzānfar, Resāla, p. 7) [2]
  38. ^ a b c (Ritter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJalāl al- Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵhaṭībī ." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Excerpt: "known by the sobriquet Mawlānā (Mevlâna), Persian poet and founder of the Mawlawiyya order of dervishes"): "The assertions that his family tree goes back to Abū Bakr, and that his mother was a daughter of the Ḵhwārizmshāh ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad (Aflākī, i, 8–9) do not hold on closer examination (B. Furūzānfarr, Mawlānā Ḏjalāl Dīn, Tehrān 1315, 7; ʿAlīnaḳī Sharīʿatmadārī, Naḳd-i matn-i mathnawī, in Yaghmā, xii (1338), 164; Aḥmad Aflākī, Ariflerin menkibeleri, trans. Tahsin Yazıcı, Ankara 1953, i, Önsöz, 44).")
  39. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). p. 44:“Baha al-Din’s father, Hosayn, had been a religious scholar with a bent for asceticism, occupied like his own father before him, Ahmad, with the family profession of preacher (khatib). Of the four canonical schools of Sunni Islam, the family adhered to the relatively liberal Hanafi rite. Hosayn-e Khatibi enjoyed such renown in his youth — so says Aflaki with characteristic exaggeration — that Razi al-Din Nayshapuri and other famous scholars came to study with him (Af 9; for the legend about Baha al-Din, see below, “The Mythical Baha al-Din”). Another report indicates that Baha al-Din’s grandfather, Ahmad al-Khatibi, was born to Ferdows Khatun, a daughter of the reputed Hanafite jurist and author Shams al-A’emma Abu Bakr of Sarakhs, who died circa 1088 (Af 75; FB 6 n.4; Mei 74 n. 17). This is far from implausible and, if true, would tend to suggest that Ahmad al-Khatabi had studied under Shams al-A’emma. Prior to that the family could supposedly trace its roots back to Isfahan. We do not learn the name of Baha al-Din’s mother in the sources, only that he referred to her as “Mama” (Mami), and that she lived to the 1200s.” (p. 44)
  40. ^ Ahmed, Nazeer, Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammed to the First World War, p.58, Xlibris Corporation (2000), ISBN 978-0-7388-5962-0
  41. ^ Hz. Mawlana and Shams by Sefik Can
  42. ^ The Essential Rumi. Translations by Coleman Barks, p. xx.
  43. ^ Helminski, Camille. "Introduction to Rumi: Daylight". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  44. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1987). Islamic Art and Spirituality. SUNY Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-88706-174-5. 
  45. ^ Mevlâna Jalal al-din Rumi
  46. ^ H. Crane "Notes on Saldjūq Architectural Patronage in Thirteenth Century Anatolia," Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, v. 36, n. 1 (1993), p. 18.
  47. ^ Maulana Rumi (25 May 2011). The Masnavi I Ma'navi of Rumi: Complete 6 Books. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4635-1016-9. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  48. ^ Naini, Majid. The Mysteries of the Universe and Rumi's Discoveries on the Majestic Path of Love
  49. ^ Abdul Rahman Jami notes:

    من چه گویم وصف آن عالیجناب — نیست پیغمبر ولی دارد کتاب

    مثنوی معنوی مولوی — هست قرآن در زبان پهلوی

    What can I say in praise of that great one? He is not a Prophet but has come with a book; The Spiritual Masnavi of Mowlavi Is the Qur'an in the language of Pahlavi (Persian).

    (Khawaja Abdul Hamid Irfani, "The Sayings of Rumi and Iqbal", Bazm-e-Rumi, 1976.)

  50. ^ J.T.P. de Bruijn, "Comparative Notes on Sanai and 'Attar", The Heritage of Sufism, L. Lewisohn, ed., p. 361: "It is common place to mention Hakim Sana'i (d. 525/1131) and Farid al-Din 'Attar (1221) together as early highlights in a tradition of Persian mystical poetry which reached its culmination in the work of Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi and those who belonged to the early Mawlawi circle. There is abundant evidence available to prove that the founders of the Mawlawwiya in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries regarded these two poets as their most important predecessors"
  51. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). p. 306: "The manuscripts versions differ greatly in the size of the text and orthography. Nicholson’s text has 25,577 lines though the average medieval and early modern manuscripts contained around 27,000 lines, meaning the scribes added two thousand lines or about eight percent more to the poem composed by Rumi. Some manuscripts give as many as 32,000!"
  52. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teaching, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, rev. ed. (2008). p. 314: “The Foruzanfar’s edition of the Divan-e Shams compromises 3229 ghazals and qasidas making a total of almost 35000 lines, not including several hundred lines of stanzaic poems and nearly two thousand quatrains attributed to him”
  53. ^ Dar al-Masnavi Website, accessed December 2009: According to the Dar al-Masnavi website: “In Forûzânfar's edition of Rumi's Divan, there are 90 ghazals (Vol. 1, 29;Vol. 2, 1; Vol. 3, 6; Vol. 4, 8; Vol. 5, 19, Vol. 6, 0; Vol. 7, 27) and 19 quatrains entirely in Arabic. In addition, there are ghazals which are all Arabic except for the final line; many have one or two lines in Arabic within the body of the poem; some have as many as 9–13 consecutive lines in Arabic, with Persian verses preceding and following; some have alternating lines in Persian, then Arabic; some have the first half of the verse in Persian, the second half in Arabic.”
  54. ^ Mecdut MensurOghlu: “The Divan of Jalal al-Din Rumi contains 35 couplets in Turkish and Turkish-Persian which have recently been published me” (Celal al-Din Rumi’s turkische Verse: UJb. XXIV (1952), pp. 106–115)
  55. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teaching, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, rev. ed. (2008): "“a couple of dozen at most of the 35,000 lines of the Divan-I Shams are in Turkish, and almost all of these lines occur in poems that are predominantly in Persian”"
  56. ^ Dedes, D. 1993. Ποίηματα του Μαυλανά Ρουμή [Poems by Rumi]. Ta Istorika 10.18–19: 3–22. see also [3]
  57. ^ Franklin D. Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teaching, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, rev. ed. (2008): "Three poems have bits of demotic Greek; these have been identified and translated into French, along with some Greek verses of Sultan Valad. Golpinarli (GM 416–417) indicates according to Vladimir Mir Mirughli, the Greek used in some of Rumi’s macaronic poems reflects the demotic Greek of the inhabitants of Anatolia. Golpinarli then argues that Rumi knew classical Persian and Arabic with precision, but typically composes poems in a more popular or colloquial Persian and Arabic.".
  58. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West — The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi, Oneworld Publications, 2000, Chapter 7.
  59. ^ “As Safa points out (Saf 2:1206) the Discourse reflect the stylistics of oral speech and lack the sophisticated word plays, Arabic vocabulary and sound patterning that we would except from a consciously literary text of this period. Once again, the style of Rumi as lecturer or orator in these discourses does not reflect an audience of great intellectual pretensions, but rather middle-class men and women, along with number of statesmen and rulers”” (Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). p. 292)
  60. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). p. 293
  61. ^ Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2008 (revised edition). p. 295:“In contrast with the prose of his Discourses and sermons, the style of the letters is consciously sophisticated and epistolary, in conformity with the expectations of correspondence directed to nobles, statesmen and kings"
  62. ^ M.M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol II, p. 827.
  63. ^ M.M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol II, p. 828.
  64. ^ The triumphal sun By Annemarie Schimmel. p. 328
  65. ^ Various Scholars such as Khalifah Abdul Hakim (Jalal al-Din Rumi), Afzal Iqbal (The Life and Thought of Rumi), and others have expressed this opinion; for a direct secondary source, see citation below.
  66. ^ a b c Khalifah Abdul Hakim, "Jalal al-Din Rumi" in M.M. Sharif, ed., A History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol II.
  67. ^ Rumi: 53 Secrets from the Tavern of Love, trans. by Amin Banani and Anthony A. Lee, p. 3
  68. ^ Lewis 2000, pp. 407–408
  69. ^ Lewis 2000, p. 408
  70. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Rumi and the Sufi Tradition," in Chelkowski (ed.), The Scholar and the Saint, p. 183
  71. ^ Quoted in Ibrahim Gamard, Rumi and Islam: Selections from His Stories, Poems, and Discourses — Annotated and Explained, p. 171.
  72. ^ Arthur John Arberry, "Tales from the Masnavi", Psychology Press, Apr 17, 2002. p. 11: "called by the poet Jami 'the Koran in the Persian tongue'
  73. ^ Said, Farida. "REVIEWS: The Rumi craze". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  74. ^ From Dr. Naini's programs
  75. ^ From Rumi Network
  76. ^ The Diploma of Honorary Doctorate of the University of Tehran in the field of Persian Language and Literature will be granted to Professor Coleman Barks
  77. ^ Curiel, Jonathan, San Francisco Chronicle Staff Writer, Islamic verses: The influence of Muslim literature in the United States has grown stronger since the Sept. 11 attacks (February 6, 2005), Available online (Retrieved Aug 2006)
  78. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 7. Emission Group — Five Thousand Turkish Lira — I. Series, II. Series & III. Series. — Retrieved on 20 April 2009. Archived 2 June 2009 at WebCite
  79. ^ a b Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000.
  80. ^ See for example 4th grade Iranian school book where the story of the Parrot and Merchant from the Mathnawi is taught to students
  81. ^ Sufism
  82. ^ ISCA — The Islamic Supreme Council of America Archived July 26, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ "Mevlâna Celâleddin Rumi". Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  84. ^ a b About the Mevlevi Order of America
  85. ^ Hanut, Eryk (2000). Rumi: The Card and Book Pack : Meditation, Inspiration, Self-discovery. The Rumi Card Book. Tuttle Publishing. xiii. ISBN 978-1-885203-95-3. 
  86. ^ Web Page Under Construction
  87. ^ Mango, Andrew, Atatürk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey, (2002), ISBN 978-1-58567-011-6.
  88. ^ Kloosterman Genealogy, Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi
  89. ^ The Mevlevi Sema Ceremony UNESCO.
  90. ^ Edward G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia from the Earliest Times Until Firdawsh, 543 pp., Adamant Media Corporation, 2002, ISBN 978-1-4021-6045-5, ISBN 978-1-4021-6045-5 (see p.437)
  91. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Deciphering the Signs of God, 302 pp., SUNY Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-7914-1982-3, ISBN 978-0-7914-1982-3 (see p.210)
  92. ^ Today'S Zaman
  93. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Afghanistan — Rumi's 800 Anniversary
  94. ^ همشهری آنلاین
  95. ^ Int'l congress on Molana opens in Tehran
  96. ^ Iran Daily — Arts & Culture — 10/03/06
  97. ^ CHN | News
  98. ^ Podcast Interview with Coleman Barks on Rumi
  99. ^ tehrantimes.com, 300 dervishes whirl for Rumi in Turkey
  100. ^ archetypebooks.com
  101. ^ Lewisohn, Leonard. "Editor’s Note". Mawlana Rumi Review

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